Il Nuovo Cimento (1955-1965)

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 568–577 | Cite as

Weak and electromagnetic interactions

  • Abdus Salam
  • J. C. Ward


The postulate of a «local connection» in a [3] charge space leads to the introduction of three spin one fields. One of these can be identified with the electro-magnetic field and the other two can be shown to mediate all known weak interactions, thus unifying these interactions with electro-magnetism. The theory takes account of the fact that weak interactions violate parity and strangeness conservation while electromagnetic interactions do not do so.


Il postulato di una «connessione locale» in un [3] spazio della carica conduce all’introduzione di tre campi di spin uno. Uno di questi può identificarsi col campo elettromagnetico e si può dimostrare che gli altri due sono il veicolo di tutte le interazioni deboli note, unificando così tali interazioni coll’elettromagnetismo. La teoria tien conto del fatto che, a differenza delle interazioni elettromagnetiche, le interazioni deboli violano la conservazione della parità e della stranezza.


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  1. (1).
    B. D’Espagnat, J. Prentki andA. Salam:Nucl. Phys.,5, 447 (1958). This paper will here by referred to as ESP. Similar ideas have been suggested byG. Takeda: to be published. In ESP theQ space is designated asM space.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    J. Schwinger:Ann. of Phys.,2, 407 (1957).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (4).
    This was first done bySchwinger (ref. (1)). The difference between our work and Schwinger’s is that here the charged Bose fields arise naturally from the 3-dimensional charge-gauge and there is little arbitrariness in writing down the interaction Lagrangian.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. (5).
    Mathematically the work in this Section in completely analogous with that ofYang andMills (Phys. Rev.,96, 191 (1954)); andR. Shaw (Cambridge dissertation, unpublished (1954)).Yang andMills were considering the possibility of a generalized gauge transformation in three-dimensional isotopic rather than charge-space.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (**).
    This has actually been checked to the lowest order byS. Kamefuchi. We are indebted for a private communication. He has also checked that an effective mass will appear for theA ± fields if parity-violating terms are added.Google Scholar
  6. (*).
    A. Salam:Phys. Rev. Letters (to be published). «γ 5-symmetrization » is not synonymous with «γ 5-invariance » of a Lagrangian though these may be equivalent in some special cases.Google Scholar
  7. (*).
    M. Gell-Mann:Phys. Rev., to be published.S. S. Gerštejn andZeldovich:Žurn. Ėksper. Teor. Fiz.,29, 698, (1958).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica 1959

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdus Salam
    • 1
  • J. C. Ward
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Imperial CollegeLondon
  2. 2.University of MiamiMiami
  3. 3.University of MarylandUSA

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