The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 247–251 | Cite as

Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV

Symposium on Infections-Old and New-II


Perinatal transmission is the most common cause of HIV infection in pediatric population below the age of 15 years. Much progress has been made to decrease the risk of transmission than just offering the option of medical termination of pregnancy to the mother. Future research is needed not only to develop the simple preventive program, but also to make it more cost effective, acceptable and accessible to the general population. Following review article focuses on the factors affecting the transmission of HIV, strategies for prevention of MTCT with special reference to use of nevirapine and breastfeeding practices in HIV positive mother. The role of counseling and voluntary testing is also stressed upon.

Key words



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Global summary of HIV/AIDS epidemic, December 2003. Slides02/Epicore2003_en_ppt.pptGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adapted from National AIDS Control Organization, “Combating HIV/AIDS in India 2000-2001.”Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    HIV/AIDS surveillance in India (as reported to NACO as on 30th November 2003). overv.htm.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feasibility study of administering short-term AZT intervention among HIV infected mothers to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in India. pmtct.htmGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cos Y, Krogstad P, Korber BTet al. Maternal HIV-1 viral load and vertical transmission of infection. The Ariel Project for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from mother to infant.Nat Med 1997; 3:549–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garcia PM, Leslie AK, Pitt Jet al. Maternal level of plasma HIV Type 1 RNA and the risk of Perinatal transmission.N Eng J Med 1999; 341:394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Study EC, Maternal History of Vertically Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.Infection Pediatrics 1994; 94: 815–819.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee MJ, Hallmark HJ, Frankel LM, Del Priore G, Maternal Syphilis and Vertical Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1.Infection Int J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 63: 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nimmagadda A, O’Brien WA, Goetz MB. The significance of vitamin A and carotenoid status in persons infected by the human immunodeficiency virus.Clin Infect Dis 1998; 26: 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bulterys M, Landesman S, Burns DN, Rubinstein A, Goedert J. Sexual behavior and infection drug use during pregnancy and vertical transmission of HIV-1.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 15: 76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Read J, for the Intl Perinatal HIV Group. Duration of rupture of membranes and vertical transmission of HIV-1: a metaanalysis from fifteen prospective cohort studies. 7uth Conf Retrovirus Opportunistic Infect (Abst 659), Jan 30–Feb 2, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldenberg RL, Vermund SH, Goepfert AR, Andrews WW. Choriodecidual inflammation: a potentially preventable cause of perinatal HIV-1 transmission.Lancet 1998; 352:1927–1930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Report of a consensus workshop. Maternal factors involved in mother to child transmission of HIV -1.AIDS 1992; 5: 1019–1029.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Datta P, Embree JE, Kreiss JKet al. Mother to child transmission of type -1. Report from the Nairobi study.J Infect Dis 1994; 170:1134–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ehrnst A, Lindgren S, Dictor M. HIV in Pregnant Women and their Offspring: Evidence for Late Transmission.Lancet 1991; 338:203–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dunn D, Newell ML, Ades AE, Perkman C, Risk of HIV-1 Transmission through Breast Feeding.Lancet 1992; 340: 585–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RWet al. Reduction of Maternal — Infant Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type -1 with Zidovudine Treatment.N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1621–1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shaffer N, Chuachoowong R, Mock PA,et al. Short Course Zidovudine for Perinatal HIV -1 Transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: a randomized controlled trial.Lancet 1999; 353: 773–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gray G. The PETRA study: early and late efficacy of three short ZDV/3TC combination regimens to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV-1. XIII International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa (Abst LbOr 5), July 9–14,2000,b.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming Tet al. Intrapartum and Neonatal Single dose Nevirapine compared with Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV-1, Kampala, Uganda.HIV NET -012 Randomized Trial.Lancet 1999; 354:795–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maiques V, Garcia-Tejedor A, Perales A, Navarro C. Intrapartum fetal invasive procedures and perinatal transmission of HIV.Eur J Obstet Cynecol Reprod Biol 1999; 87: 63–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Europian Mode of Delivery Collaboration. Elective cesarean section versus vaginal delivery in prevention of vertical HIV transmission: a randomized clinical trial.Lancet 1999; 353: 1035–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    International Perinatal HIV Group. The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type -1.N Engl J Med 1999; 340:977–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miotti PG, Taha TE, Kumwenda NIet al. HIV Transmission through Breastfeeding: A Study in Malawi.JAMA 1999; 282: 744–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) In Ram Yogev and Gould Chadwick, eds.Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 16th edn. 2000; 1022–1032.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineP.S. Medical CollegeGujaratIndia
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsP.S. Medical College and Shree Krishna HospitalGujaratIndia

Personalised recommendations