Additional members of the local group of galaxies and quantized redshifts within the two nearest groups
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- Arp, H. J Astrophys Astron (1987) 8: 241. doi:10.1007/BF02715046
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Galaxies of redshiftz ≲ 1000 km s−1 are investigated. In the South Galactic Hemisphere there are two large concentrations of these galaxies. One is in the direction of the centre of the Local Group, roughly aligned with M 31 and M 33. The other concentration is centred almost 80 degrees away on the sky and involves the next nearest galaxies to the Local Group, NGC 55, NGC 300 and NGC 253.
The large scale and isolation of these concentrations, and the continuity of their redshifts require that they are all galaxies at the same, relatively close distance of the brightest group members. The fainter members of the group have higher redshifts, mimicking to some extent a Hubble relation. But if they are all at the same average distance the higher redshifts must be due to a cause other than velocity.
The redshifts of the galaxies in the central areas of these groups all obey a quantization interval of δcz0 = 72.4 kms−1. This is the same quantization found by William Tifft, and later by others, in all physical groups and pairs which have been tested. The quantization discovered here, however, extends over a larger interval in redshift than heretofore encountered.
The majority of redshifts used in the present analysis are accurate to ± 8 km s−1. The deviation of those redshifts from multiples of 72.4 km s-1 averages ±8.2 km s−1. The astonishing result, however, is that for those redshifts which are known more accurately, the deviation from modulo 72.4 drops to a value between 3 and 4 km s−1! The amount of relative velocity allowed these galaxies is therefore implied to be less than this extremely small value.
Key wordsredshifts quantization−galaxies Local Group−galaxies Sculptor Group
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