, Volume 166, Issue 1, pp 1–23 | Cite as

Plasma exudation and asthma

  • Carl G. A. Persson


Several pieces of evidence support the view that exudation of plasma into the airway wall and into the airway lumen occurs in asthma. Vascular leakage of plasma results from inflammatory mediator-induced separation of endothelial cells in postcapillary venules belonging to the tracheobronchial circulation. Whereas proposed mediators of asthma induce reversible leakage, several antiasthma drugs exhibit antileakage effects in animals and humans. Potential consequences of plasma exudation are many. Mucosal/submucosal edema might contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. Plasma exudate in the airway lumen in asthma may contribute to sloughing of epithelium, impairment of mucociliary transport, narrowing of small airways, and mucus plug formation. Exuded plasma may cause airway inflammation and constriction because of its content of powerful mediators, and chemoattractant factors and plasma proteins may condition the inflammatory cells abundant in asthmatic airways to release mediators in response to stimuli that otherwise would be innocuous to the cells. It is concluded that inflammatory stimulus-induced increase in macromolecular permeability of the tracheobronchial microvasculature and mucosa may be a significant pathogenetic mechanism in asthma and that the postcapillary venular endothelium and airway epithelium that regulate leakage of plasma are important effector cells in this disease.

Key words

Airway inflammation Asthma pathology Macromolecular leakage Microvascular permeability Mucosal permeability Mediators Antiasthma drugs 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe K, Watanabe N, Kumagai N, Mouri T, Seki T, Yoshinaga K (1967) Circulating plasma kinin in patients with bronchial asthma. Experientia 23:626–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aitken ML, Verdugo P (1986) Donnan mechanism of mucus hydration: effect of soluble proteins. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:A294Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akcasu A (1959) The physiological and pharmacological characteristics of the tracheal muscle. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 122:201–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander HL (1963) A historical account of death from asthma. J Allergy 34:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson WH (1985) Biochemical mediators: release, chemistry, and function. In: Weiss EB, Segal MS, Stein M (eds) Bronchial Asthma. 2nd ed. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 57–87Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andersson TO, Riff LJM, Jackson GG (1962) Immunoelectrophoresis of nasal secretions collected during a common cold: observations which suggest a mechanism of seroimmunity in viral respiratory infections. J Immunol 89:691–697Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnold J (1876) Uber die Kittsubstanz der Endothelien. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 66:77–95Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aschheim E, Zweifach BW (1962) Quantitative studies of protein and water shifts during inflammation. Am J Physiol 202:554–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baier H, Long WM, Wanner A (1985) Bronchial circulation in asthma. Respiration 48:199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baile EM, Dahlby RW, Wiggs BR, Paré PD (1985) Role of tracheal and bronchial circulation in respiratory heat exchange. J Appl Physiol 58:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgarten A, Melrose GJH, Vagg WJ (1970) Interactions between histamine and bradykinin assessed by continuous recording of increased vascular permeability. J Physiol 208:669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baumgarten CR, Togias AG, Naclerio RM, Lichtenstein LM, Norman PS, Proud D (1985) Influx of kininogens into nasal secretions after antigen challenge of allergic individuals. J Clin Invest 76:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Becker CG, Nachman RL (1973) Contractile proteins of endothelial cells, platelets and smooth muscle. Am J Pathol 71:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Björk J, Hugli TE, Smedegård G (1985) Microvascular effects of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. J Immunol 134:1115–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bonomo L, D’Addabbo A (1964)131I Albumin turnover and loss of protein into the sputum in chronic bronchitis. Clin Chim Acta 10:214–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bortkiewicz J (1983) Arginine esterase activity of the plasma in different types of bronchial asthma. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 31:71–73Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boucher RC, Bromberg PA, Gatzy JT (1980) Airway mucosal permeability. In: Hargreave F (ed) Airway Reactivity. Astra Canada, Mississauga, pp 40–48Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brogan TD, Ryley HC, Neale L, Yassa J (1975) Soluble proteins of bronchopulmonary secretions from patients with cystic fibrosis, asthma, and bronchitis. Thorax 30:72–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bult H, Herman AG (1985) Vascular responses and their suppression: the role of endothelium. In: Bonta IL, Bray MA, Parnham MJ (eds) The Pharmacology of Inflammation. Handbook of Inflammation 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 83–105Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burke JF, Miles AA (1958) The sequence of vascular events in early infective inflammation. J Pathol Bacteriol 76:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burnett D, Stockley RA (1981) Serum and sputum α2 macroglobulin in patients with chronic obstructive airways disease. Thorax 36:512–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cardell BS, Pearson RSB (1959) Death in asthmatics. Thorax 14:341–52Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chambers R, Zweifach BW (1947) Intercellular cement and capillary permeability. Physiol Rev 27:436–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohnheim J (1882) Vorlesungen uber Allgemeine Pathologie I. August Hirschwald, Berlin, pp 232–367Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cole P (1982) Modification of inspired air. In: Proctor DF, Andersen I (eds) The Nose. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 351–376Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1977) Afferent vagal C-fibres in the dog lung. Their discharge during spontaneous breathing and their stimulation by alloxan and pulmonary congestion. In: Paintal AS, Gill-Kumar P (eds) Krogh Centenary Symposium of Respiratory Adaptions, Capillary Exchange and Reflex Mechanisms. University of Delhi, Delhi, pp 369–406Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cotran RS (1967) Studies on inflammation. Ultrastructure of the prolonged vascular response induced byClostridium oedematiens toxin. Lab Invest 17:39–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cottrel TS, Levine OR, Senoir RM, Wiener J, Spiro D, Fishman AP (1967) Electron microscopic alterations at the alveolar level in pulmonary edema. Circ Res 21:783–798Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Craig JP, Miles AA (1961) Some properties of the iota-toxin of clostridium welchii including its action on capillary permeability. J Pathol Bacteriol 81:481–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cutz E, Levison H, Cooper DM (1978) Ultrastructure of airways in children with asthma. Histopathology 2:407–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Daly I de B, Hebb C (1966) Pulmonary and Bronchial Vascular Systems. Edward Arnold, London, pp 42–88Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dixon FJ, Warren S (1950) Antigen tracer studies and histologic observations in anaphylactic shock in the guinea-pig. II Am J Med Sci 219:414–421Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dolovich J, Back N, Arbesman CE (1970) Kinin-like activity in nasal secretions of allergic patients. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 38:337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Don Barton A, Lourenço RV (1973) Bronchial secretions and mucociliary clearance. Arch Intern Med 131:140–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dulfano MJ, Ishikawa S (1985) Sputum in bronchial asthma. In: Weiss EB, Segal MS, Stein M (eds) Bronchial Asthma, 2nd ed. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 548–561Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dulfano MJ, Luk CK (1982) Sputum and ciliary inhibition in asthma. Thorax 37:646–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dunnill MS (1960) The pathology of asthma with special reference to changes in the bronchial mucosa. J Clin Pathol 13:27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunnill MS (1978) The pathology of asthma. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds) Allergy Principles and Practice II. CV Mosby, St. Louis, pp 678–686Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dunnill MS, Massarella GR, Andersson JA (1969) A comparison of the quantitative anatomy of the bronchi in normal subjects, in status asthmaticus, in chronic bronchitis, and in emphysema. Thorax 24:176–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elwood RK, Kennedy S, Belzberg A, Hogg JC, Paré PD (1983) Respiratory mucosal permeability in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 128:523–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Erjefält I, Persson CGA (1982) Effects of adrenaline and terbutaline on mediator-increased vascular permeability in the cat trachea. Br J Pharmacol 77:399PGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Erjefält I, Persson CGA (1986) Anti-asthma drugs attenuate inflammatory leakage of plasma into airway lumen. Acta Physiol Scand 128:653–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fabbi LM, Boschetto P, Zocca E, Milani G, Pivirotto F, Plebani M, Burlina A, Licata B, Mapp C (1987) Bronchoalveolar neutrophilia during TDI-induced late asthmatic reactions. Am Rev Respir Dis (in press)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Florey HW (1970) General Pathology, 4th ed. Lloyd-Luke, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Florey H, Carleton HM, Wells AQ (1932) Mucus secretion in the trachea. Br J Exp Pathol 13:269–284Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fraenkel A (1900) Zur Pathologie des Bronchialasthma. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 17:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gerberick GF, Jaffe HA, Willoughby JB, Willoughby WF (1986) Relationships between pulmonary inflammation, plasma transudation, and oxygen metabolic secretion by alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 137:114–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerdin B, Saldeen T (1978) Effect of fibrin degradation products on microvascular permeability. Thrombos Res 13:995–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gleich GG (1986) The role of the eosinophilic leukocyte in bronchial asthma. Clin Respir Physiol 22:(suppl 7)62–69Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grant L (1973) The sticking and emigration of white blood cells in inflammation. In: Zweifach BW, Grant L, McCluskey RT (eds) The Inflammatory Process, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, pp 205–250Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greaves M, Shuster S (1967) Responses of skin blood vessels to bradykinin, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. J Physiol 193:255–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guirgis HA, Townley RG (1973) Biochemical study on sputum in asthma and emphysema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51:86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hanicki Z, Koj A (1965) Plasma albumin loss due to bronchopathy. Clin Chim Acta 11:581–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harkavy J (1930) Spasm-producing substance in the sputum of patients with bronchial asthma. Arch Intern Med 45:641–646Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Heilpern S, Rebuck AS (1972) Effect of disodium cromoglycate (Intal) on sputum protein composition. Thorax 27:726–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Herxheimer H, Stresemann E (1961) The effect of bradykinin aerosol in guinea-pigs and in man. J Physiol 158:38–39Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hilding AC (1943) The relation of ciliary insufficiency to death from asthma and other respiratory diseases. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryng 52:5–19Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hogg JC (1984) The pathology of asthma. Clin Chest Med 5:567–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Holter JF, Weiland JE, Pacht ER, Gadek JE, Davis WB (1986) Protein permeability in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Loss of size selectivity of the alveolar epithelium. J Clin Invest 78:1513–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Houston JC, De Navasquez S, Trounce JR (1953) A clinical and pathological study of fatal cases of status asthmaticus. Thorax 8:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Huber HL, Koessler KK (1922) The pathology of bronchial asthma. Arch Intern Med 30:689–760Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hultström D, Svensjö E (1980) Intravital and electron microscopic study of bradykinininduced vascular permeability changes using FITC-dextran as a tracer. J Pathol 129:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hurley JV (1982) Types of pulmonary microvascular injury. In: Malik AB, Staub NC (eds) Lung microvascular injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 384:269-286Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hurley JV (1983) Acute Inflammation, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hutt G, Wick H (1956) Bronchial-lumen und Atemwiderstand. Z Aerosol Forsch Ther 5:131–140Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ishii M, Matsumoto N, Fuyuki T, Hida W, Ichinose M, Inoue H, Takishima T (1985) Effects of hemodynamic edema formation on peripheral vs. central airway mechanics. J Appl Physiol 59:1578–1584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jarnum S (1963) Protein-Losing Gastroenteropathy. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1–232Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Keal EE (1971) Biochemistry and rheology of sputum in asthma. Postgrad Med J 47:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kennedy SM, Elwood RK, Wiggs BJR, Paré PD, Hogg JC (1984) Increased airway mucosal permeability of smokers. Relationship to airway reactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kröll F, Karlsson J-A, Persson CGA (1987) Bronchial circulation perfused via the pulmonary artery in guinea-pig isolated lungs. Acta Physiol Scand 129:437–440Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Laitinen LA, Laitinen A (1987) Is asthma also a vascular disease? Am Rev Respir Dis 135:A474Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Laitinen LA, Laitinen A, Widdicombe JG (1987) Effects of inflammatory and other mediators on airway vascular beds. Am Rev Respir Dis June SupplGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Laitinen LA, Robinson NP, Laitinen A, Widdicombe JG (1986) Relationship between tracheal mucosal thickness and vascular resistance in dogs. J Appl Physiol 61:2186–2193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leme GJ, Wilhelm DL (1975) The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone on vascular permeability responses in the skin of the rat. Br J Exp Pathol 56:402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lam S, Leriche JC, Kijek K, Phillips RT (1985) Effect of bronchial lavage volume on cellular and protein recovery. Chest 88:856–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    List SJ, Findlay BP, Forstner GG, Forstner JF (1978) Enhancement of the viscosity of mucin by serum albumin. Biochem J 175:565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Macklem PT, Proctor DF, Hogg J (1970) The stability of peripheral airways. Respir Physiol 8:191–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Majno G, Palade GE (1961) Studies on inflammation I. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 11:571–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Malik AB, Selig WM, Burhop KE (1985) Cellular and humoral mediators of pulmonary edema. Lung 163:193–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marchesi VT (1961) The site of leukocyte emigration during inflammation. Q J Exp Physiol 46:115–133Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    McLaughlin RF (1983) Bronchial artery distribution in various mammals and in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 128:S57–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mellander S (1968) Contribution of small vessel tone to the regulation of blood volume and formation of edema. Proc R Soc Med 61:55–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mendes E, Strauss A, Ferri RG, Cintra ABU (1963) Immunochemical studies of the asthmatic sputum. Acta Allergol 18:17–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Menkin V (1940) Effect of adrenal cortex extract on capillary permeability. Am J Physiol 129:691–697Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Messer JW, Peters GA, Bennet WA (1960) Causes of death and pathologic findings in 304 cases of bronchial asthma. Dis Chest 38:616–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Michel O, Sergysels R, Duchateau J (1986) Complement activation in asthma evaluated by the C3d/C3 index. Ann Allergy 57:405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Miles AA (1964) Large molecular substances as mediators of the inflammatory reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:855–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Miles AA, Wilhelm DL (1955) Enzyme-like globulins from serum reproducing the vascular phenomena of inflammation. Br J Exp Pathol 36:71–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Miles AA, Wilhelm DL (1960) The activation of endogenous substances inducing pathological increases of capillary permeability. In: Stoner HB, Threlfall CJ (eds) The Biochemical Response to Injury. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 51–83Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Miller WS (1947) The Lung. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, pp 74–88Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Moore WF (1925) Ciliary inhibition or destruction in tracheobronchial asthma. Am J Med Sci 169:799–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Moretti M, Giannico G, Marchioni CF, Bisetti A (1984) Effects of methylprednisolone on sputum biochemical components in asthmatic bronchitis. Eur J Respir Dis 65:365–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morrison HM, Afford SC, Stockley RA (1984) Inhibitory capacity of alpha1 antitrypsin in lung secretions: variability and the effect of drugs. Thorax 39:510–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Movat HZ (1979) Kinins and the kinin system as inflammatory mediators. In: Houck JC (ed) Chemical Messengers of the Inflammatory Process. Handbook of Inflammation, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 47–112Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mygind N, Wihl JÅ (1976) Concentrations of immunoglobulins in nasal secretion from children with recurrent infections in the upper airways. Acta Otolaryngol 82:216–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Naclerio RM, Bartenfelder D, Proud D, Togias AG, Meyers DA, Kagey-Sobotka A, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM (1985) Theophylline reduces the response to nasal challenge with antigen. Am J Med 79 (suppl 6A):43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nadel JA, Holtzmann MJ (1984) Regulation of airway responsiveness and secretion: role of inflammation. In: Kay AB, Austen KF, Lichtenstein LM (eds) Asthma. Academic Press, London, pp 129–153Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nagata S, Glovsky MM, Adams JS, Kebo D, Alfaro C, Sharma O (1986) Anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a are produced by human alveolar macrophages in culture and are found in sputum of asthmatics. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77(1:2):126Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nelson RM, McIntyre BR, Egan EA (1978) Solute permeability of the alveolar epithelium in alloxan edema in dogs. J Appl Physiol 44:353–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nordin U (1977) The trachea and cuff-induced tracheal injury. Acta Laryngol 83 (suppl 345):1–71Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Northover AM (1975) Action of histamine on endothelial cells of guinea-pig isolated hepatic portal vein and its modification by indomethacin or removal of calcium. Br J Exp Pathol 56:52–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Oyvin IA, Gaponynk PY, Volodin VM, Oyvin VI, Tokaryev OY (1972) Mechanisms of blood vessel permeability derangement under the influence of permeability factors (histamine, serotonin, kinins) and inflammatory agents. Biochem Pharmacol 21:89–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Parsons GH, Kramer GC, Link DP, Lantz BMT, Gunther RA, Green JF, Cross CE (1985) Studies of reactivity and distribution of bronchial blood flow in sheep. Chest 87:180S-182SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pennington JE, Reynolds HY (1973) Concentrations of gentamicin and carbenicilin in bronchial secretions. J Infect Dis 128:63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Persson CGA (1986) Role of plasma exudation in asthmatic airways. Lancet 2:1126–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Persson CGA (1986) Overview of effects of theophylline. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78:780–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Persson CGA (1987) Cromoglicate, plasma exudation and asthma. Trends Pharmacol Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Persson CGA (1987) Xanthines as airway antiinflammatory drugs. J Allergy Clin Immunol (submitted)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Persson CGA (1987) Bronchial microcirculation. In: Barnes PJ, Rodger IW, Thomson NC (eds) Asthma: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Management. London: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Persson CGA, Karlsson J-A (1987) In vitro response to bronchodilator drugs. In: Jenne J, Murphy T (eds) Drug Therapy for Asthma. Lung Biology in Health and Disease, Lenfant C (ed). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 129–176Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Persson CGA, Erjefält I (1986) Inflammatory leakage of macromolecules from the vascular compartment into the tracheal lumen. Acta Physiol Scand 126:615–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Persson CGA, Erjefält I (1987) Non-neural and neural regulation of airway microvascular leakage of macromolecules. In: Kaliner MA, Barnes P (eds) Neural Regulation of the Airways in Health and Disease. Lung Biology in Health and Disease, Lenfant C (ed). Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Persson CGA, Erjefält I, Andersson P (1986) Leakage of macromolecules from guinea pig tracheobronchial microcirculation. Effects of allergen, leukotrienes, tachykinins, and antiasthma drugs. Acta Physiol Scand 127:95–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Persson CGA, Erjefält I, Grega GJ, Svensjö E (1982) The role ofβ-receptor agonists in the inhibition of pulmonary edema. In: Malik AB, Staub NC (eds) Lung microvascular injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 384:544–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Persson CGA, Erjefält I, Sundler F (1987) Airway microvascular and epithelial leakage of plasma induced by PAF-acether and capsaicin. Am Rev Respir Dis 135:A401Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Persson CGA, Svensjö E (1985) Vascular responses and their suppression: drugs interfering with venular permeability. In: Bonta IL, Bray MA, Parnham MJ (eds) Handbook of Inflammation, Volume 5: The Pharmacology of Inflammation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 61–81Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pietra GG, Szidon JP, Carpenter HA, Fishman AP (1974) Bronchial venular leakage during endotoxin shock. Am J Pathol 77:387–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pipkorn U, Proud D, Schleimer RP, Peters SP, Adkinson NF Jr, Kagey-Sobotka A, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM, Naclerio RN (1986) Effect of systemic glucocorticoid treatment on human nasal mediator release after antigen challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77 (suppl):180Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pirotzky R, Page C, Roubin R, Pfister A, Paul W, Bonnet J, Benviste J (1984) Paf-acether induced plasma exudation in rat skin is independent of platelets and neutrophils. Microcirc Endothelium Lymphatics 1:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Proud D, Togias A, Nacleiro RM, Crush SA, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM (1983) Kinins are generated in vivo following nasal airway challenge of allergic individuals with allergen. J Clin Invest 72:1678–1685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rossen RD, Butler WT, Cate TR, Szwed CF, Couch RB (1965) Protein composition of nasal secretion during respiratory virus infection. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 119:1169–1179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rous P, Smith F (1931) The gradient of vascular permeability. J Exp Med 53:219–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ryley HC, Brogan TD (1968) Variation in the composition of sputum in chronic chest diseases. Br J Exp Pathol 49:625–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Salter HH (1968) On Asthma: Its Pathology and Treatment, 2nd Ed. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salvato G (1968) Some histological changes in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Thorax 23:168–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schneeberger EE, Hamelin M (1984) Interaction of serum proteins with lung endothelial glycocalyx: its effect on endothelial permeability. Am J Physiol 247:H206–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sellick H, Widdicombe JG (1969) The activity of lung irritatant receptors during pneumothorax, hypertonea and pulmonary vascular congestion. J Physiol 203:359–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    de Shazo RD, Levinson AJ, Dvorak HF, Davis RW (1979) The late phase skin reaction: evidence for activation of the coagulation system in an IgE-dependent reaction in man. J Immunol 122:692–698Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Simani AS, Inoue S, Hogg JC (1974) Penetration of the respiratory epithelium of guinea-pigs following exposure to cigarette smoke. Lab Invest 31:75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Simonsson B, Skoogh BE, Bergh NP, Andersson R, Svedmyr N (1973) In vivo and in vitro effect of bradykinin on bronchial motor tone in normal subjects and patients with airways obstruction. Respiration 30:378–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Simpson DL, Goodman M, Spector LS, Petty L (1978) Long term follow-up and bronchial reactivity testing in survivors of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 117:449–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sobin SS, Frasher WG, Tremer HM, Hadley GG (1963) The microcirculation of the tracheal mucosa. Angiology 14:165–170Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Spector WG (1951) The role of some higher peptides in inflammation. J Pathol Bacteriol 63:93–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Spector WG, Willoughby DA (1963) The inflammatory response. Bacteriol Rev 27:117–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stockley RA, Mistry M, Bradwell AR, Burnett D (1979) A study of plasma proteins in the sol phase of sputum from patients with chronic bronchitis. Thorax 34:777–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Svensjö E (1978) Bradykinin and prostaglandin E1, E2 and F2-induced macromolecular leakage in the hamster cheek pouch. Prostaglandins Med 1:397–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Svensjö E, Joyner WL (1984) The effects of intermittent and continuous stimulation of microvessels in the cheek pouch of hamsters with histamine and bradykinin on the development of venular leaky sites. Microcirc Endothelium Lymphatics 1:381–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Thomas G (1982) Mechanism of ionophore A23187 induction of plasma protein leakage and of its inhibition by indomethacin. Eur J Pharmacol 81:35–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Thurlbeck WM, Hendersson JA, Fraser RG, Bates DV (1970) Chronic obstructive lung disease. A comparison between clinical roentgenologic, functional and morphologic criteria in chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma and bronchiectasis. Medicine 49:81–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wanner A (1985) Mucociliary function in bronchial asthma. In: Weiss EB, Segal MS, Stein M (eds) Bronchial Asthma, 2nd ed. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 270–279Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ward PA, Hugli TE, Chenoweth DE (1979) Complement and chemotaxis. In: Houck JC (ed) Chemical Messengers of the Inflammatory Process. Handbook of Inflammation, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 153–178Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wedmore CV, Williams TJ (1981) Control of vascular permeability by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in inflammation. Nature 289:646–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wiggins J, Elliot JA, Stevenson RD, Stockley RA (1982) Effect of corticosteroids on sputum sol-phase protease inhibitors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 37:652–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wiggins RC, Cochrane CG (1979) Hageman factor and the contact activation system. In: Houck JC (ed) Chemical Messengers of the Inflammatory Process. Handbook of Inflammation, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 179–196Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Wilhelm DL (1973) Chemical mediators. In: Zweifach BW, Grant L, McCluskey RT (eds) The Inflammatory Process, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, pp 251–302Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Williams DA, Leopold JG (1959) Death from bronchial asthma. Acta Allerg 14:83–86Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Williams TJ (1985) Vascular responses and their suppression: vasodilation and edema. In: Bonta IL, Bray MA, Parnham MJ (eds) The Pharmacology of Inflammation. Handbook of Inflammation, 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Willoughby DA, Giroud JP (1969) The role of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in acute inflammation in agranulocytic rats. J Pathol 98:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Willoughby DA, Spector WG (1968) Inflammation in agranulocytotic rats. Nature 219:1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wilson GB, Fudenberg HH (1977) Ciliary dyskinesia factors in cystic fibrosis and asthma. Nature 266:463–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Woodward DF, Weichman BM, Gill CA, Wasserman MA (1983) The effect of synthetic leukotrienes on tracheal microvascular permeability. Prostaglandins 25:131–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Zweifach BW (1962) Pathophysiology of the blood vascular barrier. Angiology 13:345–355Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zweifach BW (1973) Microvascular aspects of tissue injury. In: Zweifach BW, Grant L, McCluskey RT (eds) The Inflammatory Process, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–46Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl G. A. Persson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PharmacologyUniversity Hospital of Lund, and AB Draco Pharmacological LaboratoryLundSweden

Personalised recommendations