Advertisement

Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 491–531 | Cite as

Prehistoric human colonization of India

  • V. N. Misra
Article

Abstract

Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation.

Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers.

With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and the Ganga valley. The location of theMahabharata epic, which is set in the beginning of the first millennium B.C., is the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab (land between two rivers). Iron technology enabled pioneering farmers to clear the dense and tangled forests of the middle and lower Ganga plains. The focus of development now shifted further eastward to eastern Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar which witnessed the events of theRamayana epic and rise of the first political entities known asMahajanapadas as also of Buddhism and Jainism. The second phase of urbanization of India, marked by trade, coinage, script and birth of the first Indian empire, namely Magadha, with its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna) also took place in this region in the sixth century B.C. The imposition by Brahmin priests of the concepts of racial and ritual purity, pollution, restrictions on sharing of food, endogamy,anuloma (male of upper caste eligible to marry a female of lower caste) andpratiloma (female of upper caste ineligible to marry a male of lower caste) forms of marriage,karma (reaping the fruits of the actions of previous life in the present life), rebirth,varnashrama dharma (four stages of the expected hundred-year life span) and the sixteensanskaras (ceremonies) on traditional occupational groups led to the birth of the caste system — a unique Indian phenomenon.

Keywords

Bronze age caste system chalcolithic early historic human evolution hunter-gatherers iron age megalithic mesolithic neolithic palaeolithic urbanization 

Abbreviations used

BP

before present

ca

circa

IAR

Indian Archaeology Review

NBPW

northern black polished ware

OCP

ochre-coloured pottery

PGW

painted grey ware

TL

thermoluminiscense

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrawala R C 1989 Noh; inAn encyclopedia of Indian archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Monoharlal) vol. 2, pp 318–319Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed N 1966Stone Age Cultures of the Upper Son Valley, Ph.D. Dissertation, Poona University, PuneGoogle Scholar
  3. Allchin B 1981 The Palaeolithic of the Potwar plateau, Punjab, Pakistan: a fresh approach;Palaeorient 7 123–134Google Scholar
  4. Allchin B and Allchin R 1982The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
  5. Allchin B, Goudie A and Hegde K T M 1978Prehistory and Palaeogeography of the Great Indian Desert (London: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  6. Allchin F R 1960Piklihal Excavations, Andhra Pradesh Government Archaeological Series 1 (Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh)Google Scholar
  7. Allchin F R 1961Utnur Excavations, Andhra Pradesh Government Archaeological Series 5 (Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh)Google Scholar
  8. Allchin F R 1963Neolithic Cattle Keepers of South India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
  9. Ansari Z D and Dhavalikar M K 1973Excavations at Kayatha (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  10. Ansari Z D and Nagarajarao M S 1969Excavations at Sangankallu - 1964–1965 (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  11. Badam G L 1979Pleistocene Fauna of India with Special Reference to the Siwaliks (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  12. Banerjee N R 1956 The megalithic problem of Chingleput in the light of recent exploration;Ancient India 12 21–34Google Scholar
  13. Banerjee N R 1986Nagda (New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India)Google Scholar
  14. Banerjee N R and Soundara Rajan K V 1959 Sanur 1950–1952 a megalithic site in district Chingleput;Ancient India 15 4–42Google Scholar
  15. Baskaran M, Marathe A R, Rajaguru S N and Somayajulu B L K 1986 Geochronology of Palaeolithic cultures in Hiran Valley, Saurashtra, India;J. Archaeol. Sci. 13 505–514Google Scholar
  16. Bisht R S 1978 Banawali: a new Harappan site in Haryana;Man Environ. 2 86–88Google Scholar
  17. Bisht R S 1991 Dholavira: a new horizon of the Indus Civilization;Puratattva 20 71–82Google Scholar
  18. Casal J M 1964Fouilles d’Amri 2 vols (Paris: Publications de la Commission des Fouilles Archaeologiques, Fouilles du Pakistan)Google Scholar
  19. Chakrabarti D K 1990The External Trade of the Indus Civilization (Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal)Google Scholar
  20. Chaturvedi S N 1985 Advance of Vindhyan Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures to the Himalaya terai: excavations and explorations in the Sarayupara region of Uttar Pradesh;Man Environ. 9 101–108Google Scholar
  21. Childe V G 1936Man Makes Himself (London: Watts)Google Scholar
  22. Corvinus G 1983A Survey of the Pravara River System in Western Maharashtra, India, Vol 1.The Excavations at the Acheulian Site of Chirki-on-Pravara, India (Tubingen: Institute fur Urgeschichte)Google Scholar
  23. Dales G F 1979 The Balakot project: summary of four years of excavations in Pakistan,Man Environ. 3 45–53Google Scholar
  24. Dani A H 1960Prehistory and Protohistory of Eastern India (Calcutta: Firma K L Mukhopadhyay)Google Scholar
  25. Das Gupta P C 1964The Excavations at Pandu Rajar Dhibi (Calcutta: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums)Google Scholar
  26. de Terra H and Paterson T T 1939Studies on the Ice Age in India and Associated Human Cultures (Washington DC: Carnegie Institution)Google Scholar
  27. Deavaraj D V, Shaffer J G, Patil C S and Balasubramanya 1995 The Watgal excavation: an interim report;Man Environ. 22 57–74Google Scholar
  28. Dennell R W, Rendell H and Hailwood E 1988 Early toolmaking in Asia: two million year old artefacts in Pakistan;Antiquity 62 98–106Google Scholar
  29. De Lumley, Henry and Sonakia A 1985 Contexte stratigraphique et archeologique de l’homme de la Narmada, a Hathnora, Madhya Pradesh, Inde;L’Anthropologie 89 3–12Google Scholar
  30. De Lumley M-A and Sonakia A 1985 Premiere decouverte d’unHomo erectus sur le continent indien a Hathnora, dans la moyenne valee de la Narmada;L’Anthropologie 89 13–61Google Scholar
  31. Deo S B 1970Excavations at Takkalghat and Khapa (1968-1969) (Nagpur: Nagpur University)Google Scholar
  32. Deo SB 1973Mahurjhuri Excavation (1970–1972) (Nagpur: Nagpur University)Google Scholar
  33. Deo S B and Jamkhedkar A P 1982Excavations at Naikund (1978–1980) (Bombay: Department of Archaeology and Museums)Google Scholar
  34. Deo S B and Mujumdar G G 1969Songaon Excavation (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  35. Deo S B and Ansari Z D 1965Chalcolithic Chandoli (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  36. Deo S B, Dhavalikar M K and Ansari Z D 1969Excavations at Apegaon (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  37. Dhavalikar M K 1988The First Farmers of the Deccan (Pune: Ravish Publishers)Google Scholar
  38. Dhavalikar M K 1997Indian Protohistory (New Delhi: Books and Books)Google Scholar
  39. Dhavalikar M K, Sankalia H D and Ansari Z D 1988Excavations at Inamgaon, Vol I, Parts I and II (Pune: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  40. Dhavalikar M K, Shinde V S and Atre Subhangana 1990aExcavations at Kaothe (Pune: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  41. Dhavalikar M K, Shinde V S and Atre Subhangana 1990b Small site archaeology — excavations at Walki;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 50 197–228Google Scholar
  42. Dhavalikar M K, Raval M R and Chitalwala Y M 1996Kuntasi: a Harappan emporium on West Coast (Pune: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  43. Dikshit K N 1981 The excavation at Hulas and further explorations of the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab;Man Environ. 5 70–76Google Scholar
  44. Dikshit K N 1989 Ambkheri; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2 pp 17–18Google Scholar
  45. Ehrhardt S and Kennedy KAR 1965Excavations at Langhnaj: 1944–1963, Part 3,The Human Remains (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  46. Fairservis W A Jr 1982 Allhadino: an excavation of a small Harappan site, inHarappan Civilization: A Contemporary Prespective (ed.) G L Possehl (New Delhi: Oxford IBH) pp 133–141Google Scholar
  47. Fuerer-Haimendorf C von 1943The Chenhus: Jungle Folk of the Deccan (London: Macmillan)Google Scholar
  48. Fuerer-Haimendorf C von 1945 The problem of megalithic cultures in middle India;Man India 25 73–86Google Scholar
  49. Fontugne M R and Duplessy J C 1986 Variations in the monsoon regime during the Upper Quaternary: evidence from carbon isotopic record of organic matter in north Indian sediment cores;Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 56 69–88Google Scholar
  50. Foote R B 1916The Foote Collection of Indian Prehistoric and Protohistoric Antiquities, Notes on their Ages and Distribution (Madras: Madras Government Museum)Google Scholar
  51. Francfort H P 1989Fouilles de Shortughai: Recherches sur l’ Asie Centrale Protohistorique (Paris: Diffusion de Boccard)Google Scholar
  52. Gaillard C, Raju D R, Misra V N and Rajaguru S N 1986 Handaxe assemblages from Didwana region, Thar desert: a preliminary report on 1982 excavation;Man Environ. 7 112–130Google Scholar
  53. Gaur R C 1983Excavations at Atranjikhera: Early Civilization of the Upper Ganga Valley (Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal)Google Scholar
  54. Gaur R C 1989 Lal Qila; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol 2, pp 251–253Google Scholar
  55. Ghosh A 1973The City in Early Historical India (Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study)Google Scholar
  56. Ghosh A 1989a Jodhpura; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol 2, pp 186–187Google Scholar
  57. Ghosh A 1989b Koldihwa, inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol 2, pp 232–233Google Scholar
  58. Ghosh A 1989c Noh; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol 2, pp 318–319Google Scholar
  59. Ghosh A and Panigrahi K C 1946 Pottery of Ahichhatra;Ancient India 1 37–59Google Scholar
  60. Ghosh A K 1970 The Palaeolithic cultures of Singhbhum;Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 60 1–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gordon D H 1958The Prehistoric Background of Indian Culture (Bombay: N M Tripathi Pvt Ltd)Google Scholar
  62. Gupta S P (ed.) 1972 Proceedings of the Seminar on OCP and NBP: 1971;Puratattva 5 5–28Google Scholar
  63. Gupta S P 1996The Indus-Saraswati Civilization: Origins, Problems and Issues (Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan)Google Scholar
  64. Gururaja Rao B K 1972Megalithic Cultures in South India (Mysore: University of Mysore)Google Scholar
  65. Hanumantha Rao M and Nagaraju S 1974Excavations at Hemmige 1964 (Mysore: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums)Google Scholar
  66. Hegde K T M 1975 The Painted Grey Ware of India;Antiquity XLIX (195) 187–190Google Scholar
  67. Hegde K T M, Bhan K K, Sonawane V H, Krishnan K and Shah D R 1990Excavations at Nageshwar, Gujarat: a Harappan Shell Working Site on the Gulf of Kutch, Archaeology Series 18 (Baroda: M.S. University)Google Scholar
  68. Iyer L A K 1925Lectures on Ethnography (Calcutta: University of Calcutta)Google Scholar
  69. Jacobson J 1985 Acheulian surface sites in central India; inRecent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory (eds) V N Misra and Peter Bellwood (Delhi: Oxford-IBH) pp 49–57Google Scholar
  70. Jarrige J F 1986 Excavations at Mehrgarh-Nausharo;Pakistan Archaeol. 10–22 63–161Google Scholar
  71. Jarrige J F 1990 Excavations at Nausharo 1988–1989,Pakistan Archaeol. 25 193–240Google Scholar
  72. Jayswal V 1989 Belan Valley; inAn Encyclopeadia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 59–60Google Scholar
  73. Joshi J P 1990Excavation at Surkotada 1971–1972 and Exploration in Kutch (New Delhi: Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India)Google Scholar
  74. Joshi R V 1978Stone Age Cultures of Central India: Report on the Excavations of Rock Shelters at Adamgarh, Madhya Pradesh (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  75. Kale V S and Rajaguru S N 1987 Late Quaternary alluvial history of the northwestern Deccan upland region,Nature 325 612–614Google Scholar
  76. Karir B S 1985Geomorphology and Stone Age Cultures of Northwestern India (Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan)Google Scholar
  77. Kaw R N 1989 Burzahom; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 86–89Google Scholar
  78. Kennedy KAR 1984 Trauma and disease in the ancient Harappans; inFrontiers of the Indus Civilization (eds) B B Lal and S P Gupta (New Delhi: Books and Booka) pp 425–436Google Scholar
  79. Kennedy KAR 1992 Biological anthropology of human skeletons from Harappa: 1928 to 1988;Eastern Anthropol. 45 55–85Google Scholar
  80. Kennedy KAR and Chiment J 1991 The fossil hominid from the Narmada valley, India:Homo erectus orHomo sapiens?; inIndo-Pacific Prehistory 1990 (ed.) P Bellwood (Canberra: Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association) vol. 1, pp 42–58Google Scholar
  81. Kennedy K A R, Lovell N C and Burrow C B 1986Mesolithic Human Remains from the Gangetic Plain: Sarai Nahar Rai (Occasional Papers and Theses of the South Asia Program, Cornell University, No. 10)Google Scholar
  82. Kennedy K A R, Lukacs J R, Pastor R F, Johnston T L, Lovell N C, Pal J N and Burrow C B 1992Human Skeletal Remains from Mahadaha: A Gangetic Mesolithic Site (Occasional Papers and Theses of the South Asia Program, Cornell University, No. 11)Google Scholar
  83. Kenoyer J M 1998Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (Karachi: Oxford University Press)Google Scholar
  84. Kenoyer J M, Clark J D, Pal J N and Sharma G R 1983 An Upper Palaeolithic shrine in India;Antiquity 57 88–94Google Scholar
  85. Khan F A 1964Kot Diji (Karachi: Government of Pakistan, Department of Archaeology)Google Scholar
  86. Khatri A P 1962 Origin and development of Series II culture in India;Proc. Prehist. Soc. 28 191–208Google Scholar
  87. Krishna Sastry V V 1983The Proto and Early Historic Cultures of Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh)Google Scholar
  88. Krishnaswami V D 1949 Megalithic types of south India;Ancient India 5 35–45Google Scholar
  89. Kumar G, Narvare G and Pancholi R K 1988 Engraved ostritch egg shell objects: new evidence in Upper Palaeolithic art in India,Rock Art Res. 5 43–52Google Scholar
  90. Lal B B 1951 Further copper hoards from the Gangetic basin and a review of the problem;Ancient India 7 20–39Google Scholar
  91. Lal B B 1955 Excavations at Hastinapura and other explorations in the upper Ganga and Sutlej basins, 1950–1952;Ancient India 10–11 5–151Google Scholar
  92. Lal B B 1956 Palaeoliths from the Beas and Banganga valleys, Punjab,Ancient India 12 58–92Google Scholar
  93. Lal B B 1958 Birbhanpur, a micrilithic site in the Damodar valley, West Bengal;Ancient India 14 4–48Google Scholar
  94. Lal B B 1968 A deluge? which deluge? yet another facet of the copper hoard culture;Am. Anthropol. 70 857–863Google Scholar
  95. Lal B B 1993Excavation at Sringaverapura (1977–1986) (New Delhi: Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, 88)Google Scholar
  96. Lal B B 1997The Earliest Civilization of South Asia (New Delhi: Aryan Books International)Google Scholar
  97. Lal B B and Dikshit K N 1981 Sringaverapura: a key site for the protohistoiry and early history of the central Ganga valley;Puratattva 10 1–7Google Scholar
  98. Lal B B and Thapar B K 1967 Excavations at Kalibangan: new light on Indus civilization;Cultural Forum 9 78–88Google Scholar
  99. Lovell N C and Kennedy KAR 1989 Society and disease in prehistoric south Asia’ inOld Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia (ed.) J M Kenoyer (Madison: Wisconsin Archaeological Reports, 2) pp 89–92Google Scholar
  100. Lukacs J R 1992 Dental palaeopathology and agricultural intensification in south Asia: new evidence from Bronze Age Harappa;Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 87 133–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lukacs J R and Misra V D 1997 The people of Lekhahia: a bioarchaeological analysis of Late Mesolithic hunter-foragers of north India; inSouth Asian Archaeology 1995 (eds) R Allchin and B Allchin (Delhi: Oxford and IBH) pp 873–889Google Scholar
  102. Lukacs J R, Misra V N and Kennedy KAR 1982Bagor and Tilwara: Late Mesolithic Cultures of Northwest India, vol. I,The Human Skeletal Remains (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  103. Mackay E J H 1943Chanhu-daro Excavations 1935–1936 vol. 20 (New Haven: American Oriental Society, American Oriental Series)Google Scholar
  104. Malhotra K C, Khomine S B and Gadgil M 1983 Hunting strategies among three non-pastoral nomadic groups of Maharashtra;Man India 63 21–39Google Scholar
  105. Marathe A R 1981Geoarchaeology of the Hiran Valley, Saurashtra, India (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  106. Marshall Sir J 1931Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization, 3 vols (London: Arthur Probsthain)Google Scholar
  107. Mathpal Y D 1985Prehistoric Rock Paintings of Bhimbetka, Central India (New Delhi: Abhinav)Google Scholar
  108. Mishra S 1982 On the effects of basalt weathering on the distribution of Lower Palaeolithic sites in the Deccan;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 41 107–115Google Scholar
  109. Mishra S 1992 The age of the Acheulian in India; new evidence;Curr. Anthropol. 33 325–328Google Scholar
  110. Misra B B 1989 A brief report of excavations at Kakoria — a Chalcolithic-Megalithic site; inAn Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 191–193Google Scholar
  111. Misra B B 2000 Chalcolithic culture of the northern Vindhyas and middle Ganaga valley, inPeeping Through the Past: G.R. Sharma Memorial Volume(eds) S C Bhattacharya, V D Misra, J N Pandey and J N Pal (Allahabad: Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology) pp 66–85Google Scholar
  112. Misra V D 1977Some Aspects of Indian Archaeology (Allahabad: Prabhat Prakashan)Google Scholar
  113. Misra V D, Misra B B, Pandey J N and Pal J N 1996 A preliminary report of excavations at Jhusi;Pragdhara 6 63–66Google Scholar
  114. Misra V N 1961 Palaeolithic culture of western Rajputana;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 21 85–156Google Scholar
  115. Misra V N 1973 Bagor: a Mesolithic settlement in northwest India;World Archaeol. 5 92–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Misra V N 1974 Archaeological and ethnographic evidence for the hafting and use of microliths and related tools;Puratattva 7 3–12Google Scholar
  117. Misra V N 1976a Ecological adaptations during the terminal stone age in western and central India, inEcological Backgrounds of South Asian Prehistory (eds) KAR Kennedy and G L Possehl (Ithaca: Cornell University) pp 28–51Google Scholar
  118. Misra V N 1976b Evidence of culture contact between terminal stone age hunter-gatherers and contemporary farmers; inArchaeological Congress and Seminar 1972 (ed.) U V Singh (Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra University) pp 115–121Google Scholar
  119. Misra V N 1978 The Acheulian industry of rock shelter IIIF-23 at Bhimbetka, central India — a preliminary study;Aust. Archaeol. 8 63–106Google Scholar
  120. Misra V N 1982 Evolution of blade element in the stone industries of Rock-Shelter III F-23, Bhimbetka; inIndian Archaeology, New Perspectives (ed.) R K Sharma (Bhopal: Prachya Niketan) pp 7–13Google Scholar
  121. Misra V N 1987a Middle Pleistocene adaptations in India; inThe Pleistocene Old World: Regional Perspectives (ed.) Olga Soffer (New York: Plenum Press) pp 99–119Google Scholar
  122. Misra V N 1987bEvolution of the landscape and human adaptations in the Thar Desert, Presidential Address (Anthropology and Archaeology Section), 74th Session of the Indian Science Congress, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  123. Misra V N 1989 Stone age India: an ecological perspective;Man Environ. 14 17–64Google Scholar
  124. Misra V N 1990 The Van Vagris: ‘Lost’ hunters of the Thar desert;Man Environ. 15 89–108Google Scholar
  125. Misra V N 1994 Indus civilization and the Rigvedic Saraswati; inSouth Asian Archaeology 1993 (eds) Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio (Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia) vol. 2, pp 511–525Google Scholar
  126. Misra V N 1997 Mesolithic India: history and current status of research; inColloquia of the International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences dy1996 (Forli: ABACO Edizioni)16 321–328Google Scholar
  127. Misra V N and Nagar M 1994 Survival of the hunting-gathering tradition in the Ganga plains and central India; inLiving Traditions: Studies in the Ethnoarchaeology of South Asia (ed.) Bridget Allchin (New Delhi: Oxford and IBH) pp 169–192Google Scholar
  128. Misra V N and Nagar M 1997 From tribe to caste: an ethnoarchaeological perspective; inFrom tribe to caste (ed.) Dev Nathan (Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study) pp 102–113Google Scholar
  129. Misra V N and Rajaguru, S N 1986 Environment et culture de l’ homme prehistorique dans le desert du Thar, Rajasthan, Inde;L’ Anthropologie 90 407–437Google Scholar
  130. Misra V N, Shinde V S, Mohanty R K, Dalal K, Mishra A, Pandey L and Kharakwal, J 1995 Excavations at Balathal: their contribution to the Chalcolithic and Iron Age cultures of Mewar, Rajasthan;Man Environ. 20 57–80Google Scholar
  131. Misra V N, Shinde, V S, Mohanty R K, Pandey L and Kharakwal J 1997 Excavations at Balathal, Udaipur district, Rajasthan (1995–1997), with special reference to Chalcolithic architecture;Man Environ. 20 35–59Google Scholar
  132. Mohanty P 1988 Five seasons of exploration in Keonjhar district, Orissa;Bull. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Assoc. 8 47–53Google Scholar
  133. Mohapatra G C 1976 Geotectonic developments, sub-Himalayan lithic complex and post-Siwalik sediments; inPerspectives of Palaeoanthropology (ed.) A K Ghosh (Calcutta: Firma K L Mukhopadhyay) pp 31–59Google Scholar
  134. Moorti U S 1994Megalithic Culture of South India (Varanasi: Ganga Kaveri Publishing House)Google Scholar
  135. Mughal M R 1997Ancient Cholistan: Archaeology and Architecture (Lahore: Ferozsons)Google Scholar
  136. Mujumdar G G and Rajaguru S N 1966Ashmound Excavation at Kupgal (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  137. Mukherjee S K 1989a Mahisdal; inAn Encyclopedie of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 267–268Google Scholar
  138. Mukherjee S K 1989b Mangalkot; inAn Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, p 277Google Scholar
  139. Murty M L K 1966Stone Age Cultures of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, Ph.D. Dissertation, Poona University, PuneGoogle Scholar
  140. Murty M L K 1968 Blade and burin industries near Renigunta on the southeast coast of India;Proc. Prehistor. Soc. 34 83–101Google Scholar
  141. Murty M L K 1981a Hunter-gatherer ecosystems and archaeological patterns of subsistence behaviour on the southeast coast of India: an ethnographic model;World Archaeol. 13 47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Murty M L K 1981b Symboisis and traditional behaviour in the subsistence economies of the Kanchapuri Yerukulas of south India: a predictive model;Puratattva 10 50–61Google Scholar
  143. Murty M L K 1989 Pre-Iron age agricultural settlements in south India: an ecological perspective;Man Environ. 14 65–81Google Scholar
  144. Nagar M 1983 Ethnoarchaeology of the Bhimbetka region;Man Environ. 7 61–69Google Scholar
  145. Nagar M and Misra V N 1989 Hunter-gatherers in an agrarian setting: the nineteenth century situation in the Ganga plains;Man Environ. 13 65–78Google Scholar
  146. Nagar M and Misra V N 1990 The Kanjars: a hunting-gathering community of the Ganga valley, Uttar Pradesh;Man Environ. 15 71–88Google Scholar
  147. Nagar M and Misra V N 1993 The Pardhis: a hunting-gathering community of central and western India;Man Environ. 18 115–144Google Scholar
  148. Nagaraja Rao M S 1984Prehistoric Cultures of the Tungabhadra Valley (Delhi: Swati Publications)Google Scholar
  149. Nagaraja Rao M S and Malhotra K C 1965Stone Age Hill Dwellers of Tekkalakota (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  150. Nanda S C 1984Stone Age Cultures of Indravati Basin, Koraput District, Orissa, Ph.D. Dissertation, Poona University, PuneGoogle Scholar
  151. Narain A K and Roy T N 1968Excavations at Prahladpur (Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University)Google Scholar
  152. Narain A K and Roy T N 1977Excavations at Rajghat (Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University)Google Scholar
  153. Narasimhaiah B 1980Neolithic and Megalithic Cultures in Tamil Nadu (Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan)Google Scholar
  154. Nesfield J C 1883 The Kanjars of upper India;Calcutta Rev. 68 368–398Google Scholar
  155. Neumayer E 1983Prehistoric Indian Rock Paintings (New Delhi: Oxford University Press)Google Scholar
  156. Oldham C F 1874 Notes on the lost river of the Indian desert,Calcutta Rev. 59 1–29Google Scholar
  157. Oldham C F 1893 The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desert;J. R. Asiatic Soc. London 49–76Google Scholar
  158. Oldham R D 1887 On probable changes in the geography of the Punjab and its rivers — an historico-geographical study;J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 55 322–343Google Scholar
  159. Ota S B 1986 Mesolithic culture of the Phulbani district (Orissa) with special reference to the heavy-duty component;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 45 79–87Google Scholar
  160. Paddayya K 1973Investigations into the Neolithic Culture of the Shorapur Doab, South India (Leiden: E J Brill)Google Scholar
  161. Paddayya K 1982The Acheulian Culture of the Hunsgi Valley (Peninsular India): a Settlement System Perspective (Pune: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  162. Paddayya K 1991 The Acheulian cultural phase in the Baichbal valley, peninsular India; inIndian Archaeological Heritage (K V Soundara Rajan Felicitation Volume) (eds) C Margabandhu, K S Ramachandran, A P Sagar and D K Sinha (Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan) pp 55–61Google Scholar
  163. Paddayya K 1992 The ashmounds of South India: fresh evidence and possible implications;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 51–52 573–626Google Scholar
  164. Paddayya K and Petraglia M 1997 Isampur: an Acheulian workshop site in the Hunsgi valley, Gulbarga district, Karnataka;Man Environ. 22 95–100Google Scholar
  165. Pal J N 1992 Mesolithic human burials in the Gangetic plain, north India;Man Environ. 17 35–44Google Scholar
  166. Pandey R P 1987Prehistoric Archaeology of Madhya Pradesh (Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan)Google Scholar
  167. Pappu R S 1974Pleistocene Studies in the Upper Krishna Basin (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  168. Pappu S 1996 Reinvestigation of the prehistoric archaeological record in the Kortallayar basin, Tamil Nadu;Man Environ. 21 1–23Google Scholar
  169. Parpola A 1994Deciphering the Indus Script (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
  170. Piggott S 1950Prehistoric India (London: Penguin Books)Google Scholar
  171. Possehl G L 1996Indus Age: the Writing System (Delhi: Oxford-IBH)Google Scholar
  172. Possehl G L and Kennedy K A R 1979 Hunter-gatherer agriculturist exchange in prehistory: an Indian example;Curr. Anthropol. 20 592–593Google Scholar
  173. Possehl G L and Raval M H 1989Harappan Civilization and Rojdi (New Delhi: Oxford-IBH)Google Scholar
  174. Prasad A K 1981 Excavations at Taradih;Puratattva 12 138–139Google Scholar
  175. Raghavan H, Rajaguru S N and Misra V N 1989 Radiometric dating of a Quaternary dune section, Didwana, Rajasthan;Man Environ. 13 19–22Google Scholar
  176. Rajaguru S N 1978 Palaeoenvironment of Bhimbetka;Aus. Archaeol. 8 103–104Google Scholar
  177. Rajendran P 1983 The coastal Mesolithic industries of south India and their chronology;Bull. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Assoc. 3 18–31Google Scholar
  178. Raju D R 1988Stone Age Hunter-gatherers: an Ethnoarchaeology of Cuddapah Region, South-East India (Pune: Ravish Publishers)Google Scholar
  179. Rao S N 1977 Excavations at Sarutaru: a Neolithic site in Assam;Man Environ. 1 39–43Google Scholar
  180. Rao S R 1963 Exxcavations at Rangpur and other explorations in Gujarat;Ancient India 18–19 5–207Google Scholar
  181. Rao S R 1973Lothal and the Indus Civilization (Bombay: Asia Publishing House)Google Scholar
  182. Rami Reddy V 1976The Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cultures of Palavoy, South India, (Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh)Google Scholar
  183. Ratnagar S 1981Encounters: The Westerly Trade of the Harappan Civilization (Delhi: Oxford University Press)Google Scholar
  184. Ray R, Kundu A K and Bhattacharya N 2000 Chalcolithic cultural remains from a site near Kanjipani, Orissa; inArchaeology of Orissa (eds) K K Basa and P Mohanty (New Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan) pp 356–366Google Scholar
  185. Rea A 1902 Prehistoric antiquities in Tinnevelly; inAnnual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for the Year 1902–1903, pp 111–143Google Scholar
  186. Rendell H and Dennell R W 1985 Dated Lower Palaeolithic artifacts from northern Pakisthan;Curr. Anthropol. 26: 393Google Scholar
  187. Rendell H M, Hailwood E A and Dennell R W 1987 Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of upper Siwalik sub-group, Soan valley, Pakisthan: implications for early human occupancy of Asia;Earth Planetary Sci. Lett. 85 488–496Google Scholar
  188. Roy S C 1925The Birhors, a Little Known Jungle Tribe of Chota Nagpur (Ranchi: Man in India)Google Scholar
  189. Roy S R 1989 Chirand; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiran Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 103–105Google Scholar
  190. Roy T N 1983The Ganges Civilisation (New Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Praksahan)Google Scholar
  191. Roy T N 1986 Excavations at Manjhi (1983–1985): a preliminary report;Puratattva 16 29–32Google Scholar
  192. Sali S A 1986Daimabad 1976–1979, Memoir No. 83 (New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India)Google Scholar
  193. Sali S A 1989The Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Cultures of Maharashtra (Pune: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  194. Sankalia H D 1956 Animal fossils and Palaeolithic industries from the Pravara basin at Nevasa, district Ahmednagar;Ancient India 12 35–56Google Scholar
  195. Sankalia H D 1963 New light on the Indo-Iranian or western Asiatic relations between 1700–1200 B.C.;Artibus Asiae 26 312–332Google Scholar
  196. Sankalia H D 1964 Middle stone age culture in India and Pakistan;Science 146 365–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Sankalia H D and Deo S B 1955Report on the Excavations at Nasik and Jorwe (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  198. Sankalia H D and Karve I 1949 Early primitive microlithic culture and people of Gujarat;Am. Anthropol. 51 28–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Sankalia H D, Deo S B and Ansari Z D 1969Excavations at Ahar (Tambavati) (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  200. Sankalia H D, Deo S B and Ansari Z D 1971Chalcolithic Navdatoli (1957–1959) (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  201. Sankalia H D, Subbarao B and Deo S B 1958Excavations at Maheshwar and Navdatoli (1952–1953) (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  202. Sankalia H D, Deo S B, Ansari Z D and Ehrhardt S 1960From History to Prehistory at Nevasa 1954–1956 (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  203. Sastry T V G, Kasturi Bai M and Varaprasadrao J 1984Veerapuram: a Type Site for Cultural Study in the Krishna Valley (Hyderabad: Birla Archaeological and Cultural Research Institute)Google Scholar
  204. Seshadri M 1960Report on the Jadigenhalli Megalithic Excavations for the Year 1957 (Mysore: Department of Archaeology)Google Scholar
  205. Seshadri M 1971Reports on the Excavations at T Narasipur (Bangalore: Government Press)Google Scholar
  206. Sharma G R 1960The Excavations at Kausambi — 1957–1959 (Allahabad: Department of AHC and Archaeology, University of Allahabad)Google Scholar
  207. Sharma G R 1973 Mesolithic lake culture in the Ganga valley;Pro. Prehistoric Soc. 34 129–146Google Scholar
  208. Sharma G R 1980History to Prehistory: Archaeology of the Ganga Valley and the Vindhyas (Allahabad: Department of AHC and Archaeoloogy, University of Allahabad)Google Scholar
  209. Sharma G R and Clark J D (eds) 1983Palaeoenvironment and Prehistory in the Middle Son Valley (Madhya Pradesh, North Central India) (Allahabad: Abinash Prakashan)Google Scholar
  210. Sharma G R, Misra V D, Mandal D, Misra B B and Pal J N 1980 Beginnings of Agriculture (Epipalaeolithic to Neolithic): Excavations at Chopani-Mando, Mahadaha and Mahagara (Allahabad: Abinash Prakashan)Google Scholar
  211. Sharma T C 1989 Daojali Hading; inAn Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 115–116Google Scholar
  212. Sharma Y D 1956 Past patterns in living as unfolded by excavations at Rupar;Lalit Kala 1–2 121–129Google Scholar
  213. Sharma Y D 1989 Bahadarabad; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, pp 37–39Google Scholar
  214. Shinde Vasant 1998Early Settlements in the Central Tapi Basin (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal)Google Scholar
  215. Singh B P 1988 Khairadih: a Chalcolithic settlement;Puratattva 18 28–37Google Scholar
  216. Singh B P 1991 The Chalcolithic culture of south Bihar as revealed by the explorations and excavation in district Rohtas;Puratattva 20 83–92Google Scholar
  217. Singh G, Joshi R D, Chopra S K and Singh A B 1974 Late Quaternary history of vegetation and climate of the Rajasthan desert, India;Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. 267 467–501Google Scholar
  218. Singh P 1993 Archaeological excavations at Imlidih Khurd;Pragdhara 3 21–35Google Scholar
  219. Singh P 1994Excavations at Narhan (1984–1989) (Varanasi: Department of AIHC and Archaeology, Banaras Hindu University; Delhi: BR Pub. Corp.)Google Scholar
  220. Singh P and Singh A K 1999 Agiabir-1999: a preliminary report;Puratattva 29 117–19Google Scholar
  221. Singh P, Singh A K and Singh Indrajeet 1991–1992 Trial digging at Dhuriapar;Pragdhara 2 55–60Google Scholar
  222. Singh U V 1962 Excavations at Eran;J. M.P. Itihash Parishad 4 41–44Google Scholar
  223. Sinha B K 2000 Golbai: a protohistoric site on the coast of Orissa; inArchaeology of Orissa (eds) K K Basa and P Mohanty (New Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan) pp 322–355Google Scholar
  224. Sinha B P and Verma B S 1970Sonpur Excavations (Patna: Department of Archaeology and Museums)Google Scholar
  225. Subbarao B 1948The Stone Age Cultures of Bellary (Poona: Deccan College)Google Scholar
  226. Subbarao B 1956The Personality of India (Baroda: M.S. University)Google Scholar
  227. Subrahmanyam R, Banerjee K D, Khare M D, Rao B V, Sarkar H, Singh R, Joshi R V, Lal S B, Rao V V, Srinivasan K R and Totadry K 1975Nagarjunakonda (1954–1960), vol 1,Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 75 (New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India)Google Scholar
  228. Sundara A 1975The Early Chamber Tombs of South India — a Study of the Iron Age Megalithic Monuments of North Karnataka (Delhi: University Publications)Google Scholar
  229. Supekar S G 1968Pleistocene Statigraphy and Prehistoric Archaeology of the Central Narmada Basin, Ph.D. Dissertation, Poona University, PuneGoogle Scholar
  230. Thapar B K 1952 Porkalam 1948 — excavation of a megalithic urn burial;Ancient India 8 3–8Google Scholar
  231. Thapar B K 1957 Maski-1954: A Chalcolithic site of the southern Deccan;Ancient India 13 4–142Google Scholar
  232. Thapar B K 1967 Prakash 1955: A Chalcolithic site in the Tapti Valley;Ancient India 20–21 5–167Google Scholar
  233. Thomas P K 1974 Zoological evidence from prehistoric India with special reference to domestication;Bull. Deccan College Res. Inst. 34 195–210Google Scholar
  234. Tiwari R and Srivastava, R K 1996–1997 Excavation at Raja Nal KaTila, district Sonbhadra, U.P.: preliminary observations;Pragdhara 7 77–96Google Scholar
  235. Todd K R U 1950 Microlithic industries of Bombay;Ancient India 6 4–17Google Scholar
  236. Tripathi V 1976The Painted Grey Ware: an Iron Age Culture of Northern India (Delhi: Concept)Google Scholar
  237. Varma R K, Misra V D, Pandey J N and Pal J N 1985 A preliminary report on the excavations at Damdama (1982–1984),Man Environ. 9 45–65Google Scholar
  238. Varma R K 1986The Mesolithic Age in Mirzapur (Allahabad: Paramjyoti Prakashan)Google Scholar
  239. Vats M S 1940Excavations at Harappa, 2 Vols (Delhi: Govt of India)Google Scholar
  240. Verma B S 1970–1971 Excavations at Chirand: new light on the Neolithic culture complex;Puratattva 4 19–23Google Scholar
  241. Wadia D N 1928 Geology of Poonch State (Kashmir);Mem. Geol. Survey India 51 185–370Google Scholar
  242. Wahal L M 1989 Saipai; inAn Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (ed.) A Ghosh (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal) vol. 2, p 384Google Scholar
  243. Wakankar V S 1967Kayatha Excavation (Ujjain: Special No. of the Vikram University Journal)Google Scholar
  244. Wakankar V S 1975 Bhimbetka, the prehistoric paradise;Prachya Pratibha 3 7–29Google Scholar
  245. Wakankar V S and Brooks R R R 1976Stone Age Paintings in India (Bombay: Taraporewala)Google Scholar
  246. Wakankar V S and Khare, M D 1981 Dangwada excavation (Ujjain); inMalwa Through the Ages (ed.) M D Khare (Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of M.P.) pp 96–98Google Scholar
  247. Weber S A 1991Plants and Harappan Subsistence: An Example of Stability and Change from Rojdi (New Delhi: Oxford-IBH and American Institute of Indian Studies)Google Scholar
  248. Wheeler R E M 1948 Brahmagiri and Chandravalli 1947: megalithic and other cultures in Chitaldrug district, Mysore State;Ancient India 4 180–310Google Scholar
  249. Williams M A J and Royce K 1983 Alluvial history of the middle Son valley, north central India; inPalaeoenvironments and Prehistory of the Middle Son Valley (Madhya Pradesh, North Central India) (eds) G R Sharma and J D Clark (Allahabad: Abinash Prakashan) pp 9–21Google Scholar
  250. Yule Paul 1985Metal Work of the Bronze Age in India (Munich: C H Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung)Google Scholar
  251. Yule P, Rath B K and Hojgaard Y 1990 Sankarjang: a metal period burial site in the Dhenkanal uplands of Orissa, inSouth Asian Archaeology (ed.) M Taddei (Rome: IsMEO) pp 581–584Google Scholar
  252. Zeuner F E and Allchin B 1956 The microlithic sites of Tinnevelly district, Madras State;Ancient India 12 4–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of SciencesIndian Academy of Sciences 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Misra
    • 1
  1. 1.PuneIndia

Personalised recommendations