Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 491–531 | Cite as

Prehistoric human colonization of India

  • V. N. Misra


Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation.

Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers.

With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and the Ganga valley. The location of theMahabharata epic, which is set in the beginning of the first millennium B.C., is the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab (land between two rivers). Iron technology enabled pioneering farmers to clear the dense and tangled forests of the middle and lower Ganga plains. The focus of development now shifted further eastward to eastern Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar which witnessed the events of theRamayana epic and rise of the first political entities known asMahajanapadas as also of Buddhism and Jainism. The second phase of urbanization of India, marked by trade, coinage, script and birth of the first Indian empire, namely Magadha, with its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna) also took place in this region in the sixth century B.C. The imposition by Brahmin priests of the concepts of racial and ritual purity, pollution, restrictions on sharing of food, endogamy,anuloma (male of upper caste eligible to marry a female of lower caste) andpratiloma (female of upper caste ineligible to marry a male of lower caste) forms of marriage,karma (reaping the fruits of the actions of previous life in the present life), rebirth,varnashrama dharma (four stages of the expected hundred-year life span) and the sixteensanskaras (ceremonies) on traditional occupational groups led to the birth of the caste system — a unique Indian phenomenon.


Bronze age caste system chalcolithic early historic human evolution hunter-gatherers iron age megalithic mesolithic neolithic palaeolithic urbanization 

Abbreviations used


before present




Indian Archaeology Review


northern black polished ware


ochre-coloured pottery


painted grey ware




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© Indian Academy of SciencesIndian Academy of Sciences 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Misra
    • 1
  1. 1.PuneIndia

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