Advertisement

Journal of Biosciences

, 19:415 | Cite as

Diversity of feeding adaptations in certain columbid birds: A functional morphological approach

  • B. N. Bhattacharyya
Article

Abstract

With gradual increasing complexity in higher vertebrate structure and function, the birds as a class have acquired very high degree of feeding adaptations for diverse food-niches. A comparative functional morphological study of the feeding apparatus of 6 species of columbid birds showing diversification in their food-habits reveals that some correlations exist between the form-function complexes of the feeding apparatus and the extent of diversity of food-habits shown by these birds.

Among the species of columbid birds selected for the Study,Columba andStreptopelia are ground feeders and predominantly grain-eaters, although quite often they invade diversified food-niches.Treron andDucula, on the other hand, are almost exclusively fruit-eaters, plucking and swallowing fruits from the lofty tree branches, WhileColumba andStreptopelia show better kinesis of their jaws for ground-pecking,Treron. andDucula possess wider gape as well as stronger grasp of their bill for plucking off, grasping and swallowing large-sized fruits. Consequently, the size and pinnateness of the jaw muscles in these fruit-pigeons have developed far greater than those observed inColumba andStreptopelia. Further, inTreron andDucula, the thick and broad ‘venter externus’ slip of the M. pterygoideus ensures complete closure of the bill and possibly prevent any excess lateral expansion of the mandibular rami.

Similar correlations have also been observed between the tongue features of columbid birds and the diversity of their feeding adaptation.

Keywords

Columbidae morphology feeding apparatus osteology myology ecomorphology adaptation 

References

  1. Beecher W J 1951 Adaptations for food-getting in the American Blackbirds;Auk 68 144–440Google Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya B N 1980 The morphology of the jaw and tongue musculature of the common pigeon,Columba livia, in relation to its feeding habit;Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta 31 95–127Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharyya B N 1982 Functional morphology of the jaw muscles of some Indian insect-eating birds;Morph. Jb. 128 208–254Google Scholar
  4. Bhattacharyya B N 1989 Functional morphology of the jaw muscles of two species of Imperial Pigeons,Ducula aenea nicobarica andDucula badia insignia;Morph. Jb. 135 573–618Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharyya B N 1990 The functional morphology of the lingual apparatus of two species of Imperial Pigeons,Ducula aenea nicobarica andDucual badia insignis;Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta 43 65–92Google Scholar
  6. Blanford W T 1895, 1898Fauna of British India, Birds. 1st edition, Vols. 3–4 (London: Taylor and Francis)Google Scholar
  7. Bock W J 1964 Kinetics of the avian skull;J. Morphol. 114 1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bock W J 1966 An approach to the functional analysis of bill shape;Auk. 83 10–51Google Scholar
  9. Bock W J 1974 The avian skeleton-muscular system; inAvian biology (eds) D S Farner and J R King (New York, London: Academic Press) Vol.4, pp 119–257Google Scholar
  10. Bock W Jand von Wahlert G 1965 Adaptation and the form-function complex;Evolution 19 265–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burton P J K 1974 Jaw and tongue features in Psittaciformes and other orders with special reference to the anatomy of the Tooth-billed pigeon(Didunculus strigimstris);J. Zool. 174 255–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubale M S and Rawal U M 1962 The jaw muscles ofColumba livia intermedia Strickland;Proc. 2nd All-India Congr. Zool., Varanasi 2 248–255Google Scholar
  13. Goodwin D 1967Pigeons and doves of the World (London: British Museum Nat. Hist.)Google Scholar
  14. Hofer H 1950 Zur Morphologic der Kiefermuskulatur der Vögel;Zool. Jb. Anat. 70 427–556Google Scholar
  15. Homberger D G 1986 The lingual apparatus of the African Grey Parrot,Psittacus erithacus L. (Ayes: Psittacidae): description and theoretical mechanical analysis;Ornithol. Monogr. 39 1–233Google Scholar
  16. Lucas FA 1897 The taxonomic value of the tongue in birds;Auk. 13 109–115Google Scholar
  17. Mason C W and Maxwell-Lefroy H 1912 The food of birds in India;Mem. Dep. Agric. India. Entomol. Ser. 3 (Pusa) 1–371Google Scholar
  18. Merz R L 1963 Jaw musculature of the mourning and white-winged doves:Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 12. 521–551Google Scholar
  19. Rana B D 1991 Ecology of theIndian Ring Dove in an arid environment;Int. Symp. on Environmental and Hormonal approaches to Ornithology, Garhwal Univ. Srinagar, U.P. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  20. Rooth J 1953 On the correlation between the jaw muscles and the structure of the skull inColumba palumbus L.;Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. C56 251–264Google Scholar
  21. Starck D and Barnikol A 1954 Beiträge zur Morphologic der Trigeminusmuskulatur der Vögel, besonders der Accipitres, Cathartidae, Striges and Anseres;Morph. Jb. 94 1–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Gennip E M S J 1986 The osteology, arthrology and myology of the jaw apparatus of the Pigeon(Columba livia L.);Nederl. J. Zool. 36 1–46Google Scholar
  23. Zweers G A 1982a The feeding system of the pigeon(Columba livia L.);Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 73 1–108Google Scholar
  24. Zweers G A 1982b Pecking of the pigeon(Columba livia L.);Fortschr. Zool. 30 189–201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. N. Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyBangabasi CollegeCalcuttaIndia

Personalised recommendations