Stem Cell Reviews

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 265–276 | Cite as

Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC)

Applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning
  • Andrew J. FrenchEmail author
  • Samuel H. Wood
  • Alan O. Trounson


Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

Index Entries

Cloning embryonic stem cells human oocyte donation somatic cell nuclear transfer therapeutic cloning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cho MK, McGee G, Magnus D. Science 2006;311(5761): 614–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lerou PH, Daley GQ. Blood Rev 2005;19(6):321–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doss MX, Koehler CI, Gissel C, Hescheler J, Sachinidis A. J Cell Mol Med 2004;8(4):465–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vats A, Tolley NS, Bishop AE, Polak JM. J R Soc Med 2005; 98(8):346–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trounson A, Pera M. Reprod Fertil Dev 1998;10(1):121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall VJ, Stojkovic P, Stojkovic M. Stem Cells 2006;30:30.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colman A, Kind A. Trends Biotechnol 2000;18(5):192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mollard R, Denham M, Trounson A. Differentiation 2002;70(1):1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stojkovic M, Stojkovic P, Leary C, et al. Repord Biomed Online 2005;11(2):226–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kues WA, Niemann H. Trends Biotechnol 2004;22(6):286–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lewis IM, Munsie MJ, French AJ, Daniels R, Trounson AO.Reprod Med Rev 2001;9(1):3–33.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Cloning) Efficiency. 2002. (Accessed at Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vajta G, Gjerris M. Anim Reprod Sci 2006;92(3–4):211–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faber DC, Ferre LB, Metzger J, Robl JM, Kasinathan P. Cloning Stem Cells 2004;6(2):198–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lewis IM, French AJ, Tecirlioglu RT, et al. Aust J Exp Agric 2004; 44:1105–1111.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lewis IM, McClintock AE, French AJ, Zuelke KA, Harford BA, Trounson AO. Aust Vet J 2000;78(10):694–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paterson L, DeSousa P, Ritchie W, King T, Wilmut I. Anim Reprod Sci 2003;79(3–4):137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wells DN. Reprod Suppl 2003;61:131–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wells DN. Rev Sci Tech 2005;24(1):251–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wells DN, Oback B, Laible G. Trends Biotechnol 2003;21(10): 428–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oback B, Wells D. Cloning Stem Cells 2002;4(2):169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oback B, Wells D. Cloning Stem Cells 2002;4(2):147–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oback B, Wells DN. Cloning Stem Cells 2003;5(4):243–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kishigami S, Wakayama S, van Thuan N, Wakayama T. Hum Cell 2006;19(1):2–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang L, Duan E, Sung LY, Jeong BS, Yang X, Tian XC. Biol Reprod 2005;73(1):149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rideout WM, 3rd, Hochedlinger K, Kyba M, Daley GQ, Jaenisch R. Cell 2002;109(1):17–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wakayama S, Jakt ML, Suzuki M, et al. Stem Cells 2006;24:2030–2033.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wakayama T, Tabar V, Rodriguez I, Perry AC, Studer L, Mombaerts P. Science 2001;292(5517):740–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wakayama S, Kishigami S, Van Thuan N, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102(1):29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wakayama S, Mizutani E, Kishigami S, et al. J Reprod Dev 2005; 51(6):765–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wakayama S, Ohta H, Kishigami S, et al. Biol Reprod 2005; 72(4):932–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wakayama T. Nat Biotechnol 2004;22(4):399–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KH. Nature 1997;385(6619):810–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kato Y, Tani T, Tsunoda Y. J Reprod Fertil 2000;120(2):231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Humpherys D, Eggan K, Akutsu H, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99(20):12,889–12,894.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wakayama T, Rodriguez I, Perry AC, Yanagimachi R, Mombaerts P. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96(26):14,984–14,989.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wells DN, Misica PM, Day AM, Peterson AJ, Tervit HR. Reprod Fertil Dev 1998;10(7–8):615–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Miyashita N, Shiga K, Yonai M, et al. Biol Reprod 2002; 66(6):1649–1655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gong G, Dai Y, Zhu H, et al. Sci China C Life Sci 2004;47(5):470–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wakayama T, Rodriguez I, Perry AC, Yanagimachi R, Mombaerts P: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96(26):14,984–14,989.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wells DN, Forsyth JT, McMillan V, Oback B. Cloning Stem Cells 2004;6(2):101–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hochedlinger K, Jaenisch R. N Engl J Med 2003;349(3):275–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reik W, Dean W, Walter J. Science 2001;293(5532):1089–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dean W, Santos F, Stojkovic M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98(24):13,734–13,738.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bourc'his D, Le Bourhis D, Patin D, et al. Curr Biol 2001; 11(19):1542–1546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kang YK, Koo DB, Park JS, et al. Nat Genet 2001;28(2):173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Santos F, Zakhartchenko V, Stojkovic M, et al. Curr Biol 2003;13(13):1116–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xue F, Tian XC, Du F, et al. Nat Genet 2002;31(2):216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nolen LD, Gao S, Han Z, et al. Dev Biol 2005;279(2):525–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Daniels R, Hall V, Trounson AO. Biol Reprod 2000;63(4): 1034–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Humpherys D, Eggan K, Akutsu H, et al. Science 2001;293(5527): 95–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rideout WM, 3rd, Eggan K, Jaenisch R. Science 2001;293(5532): 1093–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wrenzycki C, Wells D, Herrmann D, et al. Biol Reprod 2001;65(1): 309–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yanagimachi R. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002;187(1–2):241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Daniels R, Hall VJ, French AJ, Korfiatis NA, Trounson AO. Mol Reprod Dev 2001;60(3):281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Boiani M, Eckardt S, Scholer HR, McLaughlin KJ. Genes Dev 2002;16(10):1209–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chavatte-Palmer P, Remy D, Cordonnier N, et al. Cloning Stem Cells 2004;6(2):94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heyman Y, Richard C, Rodriguez-Martinez H, et al. Cloning Stem Cells 2004;6(2):111–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shiga K, Umeki H, Shimura H, Fujita T, Watanabe S, Nagai T. Theriogenology 2005;64(2):334–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tecirlioglu RT, Cooney MA, Korfiatis NA, et al. Theoriogenology 2005;12:12.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Korfiatis NA, Hall VJ, Ruddock NT, Lewis IM, French AJ. Blastocyst development rates from in vitro produced, nuclear transfer and parthenote bovine embryos: Effect of oocyte quality and/or maturation. In: 2002; Theriogenology; 2002; pp. 532.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lonergan P, Rizos D, Gutierrez-Adan A, Fair T, Boland MP. Reprod Domest Anim 2003;38(4):259–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blondin P, Bousquet D, Twagiramungi H, Barnes F, Sirard MA. Biol Reprod 2002;66(1):38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Campbell KH, Alberio R. Reprod Suppl 2003;61:477–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Campbell KH, Loi P, Otaegui PJ, Wilmut I. Rev Reprod 1996;1(1): 40–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Urakawa M, Ideta A, Sawada T, Aoyagi Y. Theriogenology 2004;62(3–4):714–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sullivan EJ, Kasinathan S, Kasinathan P, Robl JM, Collas P. Biol Reprod 2004;70(1):146–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    An International consortium on Stem Cells, Ethics and Law: consensus Statement 2006. (Accessed at Scholar
  69. 69.
    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research BoLS, Division on Earth and Life studies, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hansen JE. J Med Ethics 2002;28(2):86–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    de Wert G, Mummery C. Hum Reprod 2003;18(4):672–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dhai A, Moodley J, McQuoid-Mason DJ, Rodeck C. S Afr Med J 2004;94(11):906–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Larijani B, Zahedi F. Transplant Proc 2004;36(10):3188–3189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Munsie MJ, Michalska AE, O'Brien CM, Trounson AO, Pera MF, Mountford PS. Curr Biol 2000;10(16):989–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kawase E, Yamazaki Y, Yagi T, Yanagimachi R, Pedersen RA. Genesis 2000;28(3–4):156–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barberi T, Klivenyi P, Calingasan NY, et al. Nat Biotechnol 2003;21(10):1200–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77a.
    Lavoir MC, Weier J, Conaghan J, Pedersen RA. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;11(6):740–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77b.
    Cibelli JB, Lanza RP, West MD, Ezzell C. Sci Am 2002;286:44–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 77c.
    Lu CF, Lin G, Xie CQ, et al. Chinese Science Bulletin 2003;48:1840–1843.Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    Simerly C, Navara C, Hyun SH, et al. Dev Biol 2004;276(2):237–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Simerly CR, Navara CS. Cloning Stem Cells 2003;5(4):319–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Meng L, Ely JJ, Stouffer RL, Wolf DP. Biol Reprod 1997;57(2):454–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Macklon NS, Stouffer RL, Giudice LC, Fauser BC. Endocr Rev 2006;27(2):170–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    Healy DL, Trounson AO, Andersen AN. Lancet 1994;343(8912):1539–1544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Blyth E. Hum Reprod 2002;17(12):3254–3259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Heng BC. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;11(6):676–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Trounson A, Anderiesz C, Jones GM, Kausche A, Lolatgis N, Wood C. Hum Reprod 1998;13(Suppl 3):52–62; discussion 71–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Cha KY, Chian RC. Hum Reprod Update 1998;4(2):103–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Friden B, Hreinsson J, Hovatta O. Hum Reprod 2005;20(9):2556–2558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Biron-Shental T, Fisch B, Van Den Hurk R, Felz C, Feldberg D, Abir R. Fertil Steril 2004;81(3):716–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Kato O, Leibo SP. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;11(3):300–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Heng BC. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;12(3):280–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Hubner K, Fuhrmann G, Christenson LK, et al. Science 2003;300(5623):1251–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Lacham-Kaplan O, Chy H, Trounson A. Stem Cells 2006; 24(2):266–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Kehler J, Hubner K, Garrett S, Scholer HR. Semin Reprod Med 2005;23(3):222–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Gurdon JB, Byrne JA, Simonsson S. Novartis Found Symp 2005;265:129–136; discussion 36–41, 204–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Tamada H, Van Thuan N, Reed P, et al. Mol Cell Biol 2006;26(4):1259–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Kikyo N, Wade PA, Guschin D, Ge H, Wolffe AP. Science 2000;289(5488):2360–2362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Gurdon JB. J Biosci 2005;30(1):11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Alberio R, Johnson AD, Stick R, Campbell KH. Exp Cell Res 2005;307(1):131–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Gao S, Chung YG, Williams JW, Riley J, Moley K, Latham KE. Biol Reprod 2003;69(1):48–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Sutovsky P, Moreno RD, Ramalho-Santos J, Dominko T, Simerly C, Schatten G. Biol Reprod 2000;63(2):582–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Kaneda H, Hayashi J, Takahama S, Taya C, Lindahl KF, Yonekawa H. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92(10):4542–4546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Ashley MV, Laipis PJ, Hauswirth WW. Nucleic Acids Res 1989;17(18):7325–7331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Howell N, Halvorson S, Kubacka I, McCullough DA, Bindoff LA, Turnbull DM. Hum Genet 1992;90(1–2):117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Laipis PJ, Van de Walle MJ, Hauswirth WW. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85(21):8107–8110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    St John JC, Lloyd RE, Bowles EJ, Thomas EC, El Shourbagy S. Reproduction 2004;127(6):631–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    Steinborn R, Schinogl P, Zakhartchenko V, et al. Nat Genet 2000;25(3):255–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Hiendleder S, Schmutz SM, Erhardt G, Green RD, Plante Y. Mol Reprod Dev 1999;54(1):24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Takeda K, Takahashi S, Onishi A, Goto Y, Miyazawa A, Imai H. J Reprod Fertil 1999;116(2):253–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Evans MJ, Gurer C, Loike JD, Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, Schon EA. Nat Genet 1999;23(1):90–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Tecirlioglu RT, Cooney MA, Lewis IM, et al. Reprod Fertil Dev 2005;17(5):573–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Brenner CA, Kubisch HM, Pierce KE. Reprod Fertil Dev 2004;16(7):743–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Santos TA, El Shourbagy S, St John JC. Fertil Steril 2006;85(3):584–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Alberio R, Zakhartchenko V, Motlik J, Wolf E. Int J Dev Biol 2001;45(7):797–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    Swann K. Development 1990;110(4):1295–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Sato K, Fukami Y, Stith BJ. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2006;17(2):285–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Machaty Z, Prather RS. Reprod Fertil Dev 1998;10(7–8):599–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 117.
    Ozil JP. Development 1990;109(1):117–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    Ozil JP, Huneau D. Development 2001;128(6):917–928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    Winston N, Johnson M, Pickering S, Braude P. Fertil Steril 1991;56(5):904–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Balakier H, Casper RF. Hum Reprod 1993;8(5):740–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Rinaudo P, Pepperell JR, Buradgunta S, Massobrio M, Keefe DL. Fertil Steril 1997;68(6):1086–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Cibelli JB, Kiessling AA, Cuniff K, Richards C, Lanza RP, West MD. J Regenerative Med 2001;2:25–31.Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    Nakagawa K, Yamano S, Nakasaka H, Hinokio K, Yoshizawa M, Aono T. Zygote 2001;9(1):83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Lin H, Lei J, Wininger D, et al. Stem Cells 2003;21(2):152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Homa ST, Swann K. Hum Reprod 1994;9(12):2356–2361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Wu H, He CL, Fissore RA. Mol Reprod Dev 1998;49(1):37–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Saunders CM, Larman MG, Parrington J, et al. Development 2002;129(15):3533–3544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Swann K, Saunders CM, Rogers NT, Lai FA. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2006;17(2):264–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Cox LJ, Larman MG, Saunders CM, Hashimoto K, Swann K, Lai FA. Reproduction 2002;124(5):611–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 130.
    Rogers NT, Hobson E, Pickering S, Lai FA, Braude P, Swann K. Reproduction 2004;128(6):697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Cibelli JB, Grant KA, Chapman KB, et al. Science 2002;295(5556):819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Vrana KE, Hipp JD, Goss AM, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100(Suppl 1):11,911–11,916.Google Scholar
  135. 133.
    Brevini V, Tosetti M, Crestan M, Paffoni A, Ragni G, Gandolfi F. Derivation and characterization of parthenogenetic human embryonic stem cells. In: 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology; 2006 June; Prague: Human Reproduction 21(Suppl 1) Abstract O-238; 2006; pp. i93.Google Scholar
  136. 134.
    Gardner DK, Lane M. Hum Reprod 1998;13(Suppl 3):148–159; discussion 60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Chung YG, Mann MR, Bartolomei MS, Latham KE. Biol Reprod 2002;66(4):1178–1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 136.
    Tada M, Tada T, Lefebvre L, Barton SC, Surani MA. EMBO J 1997;16(21):6510–6520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Ambrosi DJ, Rasmussen TP. J Cell Mol Med 2005;9(2):320–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Cowan CA, Atienza J, Melton DA, Eggan K. Science 2005;309(5739):1369–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Strelchenko N, Kukharenko V, Shkumatov A, Verlinsky O, Kuliev A, Verlinsky Y. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;12(1):107–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Pralong D, Mrozik K, Occhiodoro F, et al. Cloning Stem Cells 2005;7(4):265–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Weimann JM, Johansson CB, Trejo A, Blau HM. Nat Cell Biol 2003;5(11):959–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Wang X, Willenbring H, Akkari Y, et al. Nature 2003;422(6934):897–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Vassilopoulos G, Wang PR, Russell DW. Nature 2003;422(6934):901–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 144.
    Vassilopoulos G, Russell DW. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2003;13(5):480–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Chen Y, He ZX, Liu A, et al. Cell Res 2003;13(4):251–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 146.
    Murakami M, Otoi T, Wongsrikeao P, Agung B, Sambuu R, Suzuki T. Cloning Stem Cells 2005;7(2):77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Zhong ZS, Zhang G, Meng XQ, et al. Exp Cell Res 2005;306(1):35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Dindot SV, Farin PW, Farin CE, et al. Biol Reprod 2004;71(2):470–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Kitiyanant Y, Saikhun J, Chaisalee B, White KL, Pavasuthipaisit K. Cloning Stem Cells 2001;3(3):97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Collas P, Hakelien AM. Trends Biotechnol 2003;21(8):354–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Hakelien AM, Collas P. Cloning Stem Cells 2002;4(4):379–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 152.
    Brambrink T, Hochedlinger K, Bell G, Jaenisch R. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(4):933–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Grimaud C, Negre N, Cavalli G. Chomosome Res 2006;14(4):363–375.Google Scholar
  156. 154.
    Morgan HD, Santos F, Green K, Dean W, Reik W. Hum Mol Genet 2005; (Spec. No 1914):R47-R58.Google Scholar
  157. 155.
    Trounson A. Endocr Rev 2006;27(2):208–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Trounson AO. Reprod Fertil Dev 2001;13(7–8):523–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. French
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samuel H. Wood
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alan O. Trounson
    • 3
  1. 1.Stemagen CorporationLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.The Reproductive Sciences CenterLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Monash Immunology and Stem Cell LaboratoriesMonash UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations