Refractories and Industrial Ceramics

, Volume 41, Issue 3–4, pp 96–103 | Cite as

On loosening of refractory clays in roasting

  • A. K. Karklit
  • F. S. Kaplan
Raw Materials


Kaolin samples of the Malinovetskoe deposit are used to study the processes of loosening and bloating of clay rocks in roasting at a temperature exceeding the sintering one. It is shown that the bloating is a result of oxidation-reduction reactions between the admixtures contained in the clays when they are heated under the conditions of diminished viscosity of the glass phase. In addition to the possible influence of these factors the loosening is connected with crystallization of new phases.


Clay Iron Oxide Kaolinite Kaolin Cristobalite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    P. A. Zemyatchenskii,Clays of the USSR [in Russian], Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow (1938).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. D. Fedoseev and F. A. Zen’kovich,Clay Deposits of the USSR [in Russian], Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow (1939).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. V. Goncharov,Refractory Clays of the Lyubytinskoe Region [in Russian], Metallurgizdat, Moscow (1952).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Rice,Clays, Their Occurrence, Properties, and Use [Russian translation], Goskhimtekhizdat, Leningrad (1932).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Zal’mang,Physicochemical Fundamentals of Ceramics [Russian translation], Gosstroiizdat, Moscow (1959).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. I. Avgustinnik,Ceramics [in Russian], Gosstroiizdat, Moscow (1975).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. P. Shmitt-Fogelevich,A Study of Phase Formation and Mullitization Kinetics in Roasted Clay (Kaolin) -Technical Alumina Mixtures, Author’s Abstract of Candidate’s Thesis [in Russian], Leningrad (1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. I. Yakovleva and N. I. Smirnova, “Refractory clays of the Malinovetskoe deposit,” in:Refractory Production, No. 6(40) [in Russian], VIO, Leningrad (1977), pp. 12 — 23.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. K. Karklit, F. S. Kaplan, G. M. Katorgin, and T. L. Derkunova, “Secondary kaolins of the Malinovetskoe deposit,”Ogneup. Tekh. Keram., No. 5, 37 — 40 (1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. K. Karklit, T. L. Derkunova, and G. Ya. Nikolaeva, “Refractories with Malinovetskoe kaolins in the binder,”Ogneup. Tekh. Keram., No. 8, 19 — 21 (1999).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. I. Fillipov,The Theory of Metallurgical Processes [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1967).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. B. Aleskovskii, V. G. Povarov, V. M. Smirnov, and S. S. Parshin, “Process of transport reduction in the Mg — Fe2O3 — H2O system,”Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR,303(6), 1393–1396 (1988).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. T. Rostovtsev, V. K. Simonov, A. K. Ashin, and O. L. Kostelov, “ Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of metal oxides,”Ibid., 24 — 31 (1988).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. P. Elyutin, Yu. A. Pavlov, V. P. Polyakov, and S. B. Sheboldaev, “Mechanism of the initial stages of the interaction between oxides of refractory metals and carbon,” in:Mechanism and Kinetics of Reduction of Metals [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1970), pp. 32 — 39.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. A. Rabinovich and V. Ya. Khavin,A Short Handbook on Chemistry [in Russian], Khimiya, Leningrad (1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. V. Samsonov (ed.),Physicochemical Properties of Oxides, A Handbook [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1978).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. P. Glushko (ed.),Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, Vol. I [in Russian], Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow (1962).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. V. Goncharov, “On mullitization of clays in base deposits of the USSR,” in:Zap. Vseros. Mineral. Ob., Ser. II, Part 68, Issue I [in Russian] (1939).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. V. Vargin, K. S. Evstrat’ev, K. A. Krakau, et al.,Physicochemical Properties of Glass and Their Dependences on Its Composition [in Russian], Gizlegprom, Moscow — Leningrad (1937).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. V. Kukolev,The Chemistry of Silicon and the Physical Chemistry of Silicates [in Russian], Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow (1966).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Strel’tsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskii,Properties of Glasses and Glass-Forming Melts, A Handbook in 3 Vols, [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1973, 1975, 1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Karklit
    • 1
  • F. S. Kaplan
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Petersburg Institute of RefractoriesSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations