Advertisement

The American Sociologist

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 26–37 | Cite as

Taking stock of research methods and analysis on oppositional political terrorism

  • Jeffrey Ian Ross
Article

Abstract

A variety of techniques are used by journalists, practitioners, experts, consultants, and scholars in conducting research on terrorism.2 This information appears in the context of journal articles, chapters in scholarly books, academic monographs, newspaper and magazine articles, and books for popular audiences. In general, this work can be divided into qualitative and quantitative approaches. A subtle but necessary distinction should also be made between research produced for popular audiences and that which is done for the academic or scholarly community. There is an understanding that work for this latter audience is more rigorous but may lack the excitement and sensational appeal to sustain a wider interest. Nevertheless, a symbiotic relationship exists between popular and academic writers; at various times they depend upon or use research from each other. Periodically, researchers conduct comprehensive reviews of the research on terrorism and the methods used by investigators. Since the examples from which they draw are illustrative, these writings are not meant to be comprehensive, but rather illustrative. Building on similar work by Schmid (1983) and Gurr (1988), I review salient contributions in both qualitative and quantitative approaches to terrorism studies.

Keywords

Terrorist Group Political Violence International Terrorism Eyewitness Testimony Terrorist Incident 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alford, Robert H. 1967. “Class Voting in the Anglo-American Political Systems,” in Stein Rokkan and Seymour Martin Lipset (eds.)Party Systems and Voter Alignments. New York: Free Press, pp. 66–94.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, Graham T. 2004.Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, Graham T., Owen R. Cote Jr., Richard A. Falkenrath, and Steven E. Miller. 1996.Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, Terry A. 1993.Dens of Lions: Memoirs of Seven Years. New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Aston, C.C. 1986. “Political Hostage Taking in Western Europe,” in W. Gutteridge (ed.).Contemporary Terrorism. NY: Facts on File Publication, pp. 57–83.Google Scholar
  6. Atkinson, S.E., T. Sandier, and J. Tschirhart. 1987. “Terrorism in a Bargaining Framework,”Journal of Law and Economics 30: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayers, Bill. 2003.Fugitive Days. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  8. Babbie, Earl R. 2001.The Basics of Social Research. (Second Edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  9. Baer, Robert. 2003.See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA’s Fight against Terrorism. Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  10. Becker, Jillian. 1978.Hitler’s Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Gang. New York: Panther/ Granada Books.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, J. Bowyer. 1997.The Secret Army: The IRA. (Third Revised Edition). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, J. Bowyer and Ted Robert Gurr. 1979. “Terrorism and Revolution in America,” in Hugh D. Graham and Ted Robert Gurr (eds.).Violence in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 329–347.Google Scholar
  13. Blaise, Clark and Bharati Mukherjee. 1987.The Sorrow and the Terror. Toronto: Penguin Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Bodansky, Yossef. 1993.Target America: Terrorism in the U.S. Today. New York: SPI Books.Google Scholar
  15. — 2001.Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War on America. Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Buckley, Mary and Rick Fawn (eds.). 2003.Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11 Afghanistan and Beyond. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2005a. “Conciliation, Counter-Terrorism, and Patterns of Terrorist Violence,”International Organization, (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  18. _____. 2005b. “The Quality of Terror,”American Journal of Political Science, (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  19. Burke, Jason. 2003.Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  20. Chaliand, Gerard. 1983.Guerilla Strategies: A Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Clark, R.P. 1983. “Patterns in the lives of ETA members,”Terrorism: An International Journal 6: 423–454.Google Scholar
  22. Clarke, Richard. 2004.Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, Susan and Daniel Cohen 2001.Pan Am 103: The Bombing, the Betrayals, and a Bereaved Family’s Search for Justice. New York: Signet Book.Google Scholar
  24. Cordes, Bonnie. 1987. “When Terrorists Do the Talking: A Look at Their Literature,”Journal of Strategic Studies 10(4): 150–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Corrado, Raymond R. 1983. “Ethnic and Ideological Terrorism in Western Europe” in Michael Stohl (ed.).The Politics of Terrorism (Second Edition) New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 255–326.Google Scholar
  26. Crenshaw, Martha, (ed.) 1994.Terrorism in Context. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dartnell, Michael Y. 2001.Action Directe: Ultra-Left Terrorism in France, 1979-1987. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  28. De Vault, C, (with W. Johnson). 1982.The Informer: Confessions of an Ex-Terrorist. Scarborough, Ontario: Fleet.Google Scholar
  29. Delia Porta, Donatella. 1992. “Institutional Response to Terrorism: The Italian Case,”Terrorism and Political Violence 4: 151–170.Google Scholar
  30. Delli, Carpini, Michael X. 1987. “Television and Terrorism: Patterns of Presentation and Occurrence, 1969 to 1980,”Western Political Quarterly 40 (1): 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Denemark, Robert A and Mary B. Welfling. 1983. “Terrorism in Sub-Sahara Africa,” in Michael Stohl (ed.)The Politics of Terrorism (Second Edition) New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 327–376.Google Scholar
  32. Dingley, James. 2001. “The Bombing of Omagh, 15 August 1998: The Bombers, Their Tactics, Strategy, and Purpose Behind the Incident,”Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 24 (6): 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dobson, Christopher. 1974.Black September. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  34. — 1977.The Carlos Complex. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  35. Dudziak, Mary L. (ed.). 2003.September 11 in History: A Watershed Moment? Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ehrenfeld, Rachel. 1992.Narco-Terrorism. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  37. Emerson, Steven and Brian Duffy. 1990.The Fall of Pan Am 103: Inside the Lockerbie Investigation. New York: Putnam Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  38. Engene, Jan Oska and Katja H-W Skjolberg. 2002. “Data on Intrastate Terrorism: The TWEED Project,” Paper presented at ISA Conference, March, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  39. Ferracuti, Franco. 1990. “Ideology and Repentance: Terrorism in Italy,” in Walter Reich (ed.).Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Washington and Cambridge: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–64.Google Scholar
  40. Fournier, L. 1984.FLQ: The Anatomy of an Underground Movement. Toronto: NC Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fowler, William. 1981 “Terrorism Data Bases: A Comparison of Missions, Methods, and Systems, N-1503-RC (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation).Google Scholar
  42. Fuller, Linda K. 1988. “Terrorism as Treated by The Christian Science Monitor, 1977-1987,”Political Communication and Persuasion 5: 121–137.Google Scholar
  43. Graetz, Brian and Ian McAllister. 1987. “Popular Evaluations of Party Leaders in Anglo-American Democracies,” in Harold D. Clarke and Moshe Czudnowski (eds.).Political Elites in Anglo-American Democracies. Dekalb, IL: Northern Illinois Press, pp. 44–64.Google Scholar
  44. Gunaratna, Rohan. 2002.Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gurr, Ted Robert. 1988. “Empirical Research on Political Terrorism: The State of the Art and How It Might Be Improved,” in R.O. Slater and Michael Stohl (eds.)Current Perspectives on International Terrorism. London: Macmillan, pp. 115–154.Google Scholar
  46. Hansen, Ann. 2002.Direct Action: Memoirs of an Urban Guerrilla. Vancouver: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  47. Hart, Alan. 1984.Arafat: Terrorist or Peacemaker? London: Sidgwick and Jackson.Google Scholar
  48. Herman, Edward S. and Gerry O’Sullivan. 1989.The Terrorism Industry. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  49. Hewitt, Chris. 1984.The Effectiveness of AntiTerrorist Policies. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  50. — 1990. “Terrorism and Public Opinion,”Terrorism and Political Violence 2: 145–170.Google Scholar
  51. Hoffman, Bruce and David Claridge. 1988. “The Rand-St. Andrews Chronology of International Terrorism and Noteworthy Domestic Incidents, 1996,”Terrorism and Political Violence 10 (2): 135–180.Google Scholar
  52. Holsti, Ole R. 1969.Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  53. Im, Eric, J. Cauley, and T. Sandier. 1987. “Cycles and Substitutions in Terrorist Activities: A Spectral Approach,”Kyklos 40: 238–255.Google Scholar
  54. Iyad, Abu (with Eric Rouleau). 1981.My Home, My Land. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  55. Joyner, N. 1974.Aerial Hijacking as an International Crime. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Ocean Public.Google Scholar
  56. Kellen, Konrad. 1990. “Ideology and Rebellion: Terrorism in West Germany,” in Walter Reich (ed.)Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press/Woodrow Wilson Center, pp. 43–54.Google Scholar
  57. Kelly, Michael J. and Thomas H. Mitchell. 1981. “Transnational Terrorism and the Western Elite Press,”Political Communication and Persuasion 1 (3): 269–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krippendorf, Klaus. 1981.Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  59. LaFree, Gary. 2002. “Conceptual and Methodological Challenges to the Criminological Study of Terrorism,” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, November 14.Google Scholar
  60. Laplan, Harvey E. and Todd Sandier. 1988. “To Bargain or Not to Bargain: That Is the Question,”American Economic Review 78: 16–21.Google Scholar
  61. Loftus, Elizabeth F. 1996.Eyewitness Testimony. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Loomis, Dan. 1984.Not Much Glory. Montreal: Deanu.Google Scholar
  63. Mannheim, Jarol and R.C. Rich. 1986.Empirical Political Analysis. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Marighela, Carlos. 1971. “Handbook (Mini manual) of Urban Guerrilla Warfare,” inFor the Liberation of Brazil. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  65. Melman, Yossi. 1986.The Master Terrorist. New York: Avon.Google Scholar
  66. Mickolus, Edward. 1981. “Combating International Terrorism: A Quantitative Analysis,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  67. Midgley, Sarah and Virginia Rice (eds.). 1984.Terrorism and the Media in the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: The Media Institute.Google Scholar
  68. Midlarsky, Manus I., Martha Crenshaw, and Fumihiko Yoshida. 1980. “Why Violence Spreads: The Contagion of International Terrorism,”International Studies Quarterly 24: 262–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, Judith, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad. 2001.Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  70. Miller, Rueben. 1990. “Game Theory and Hostage Taking Incidents: A Case Study of the Munich Olympic Games,”Conflict Quarterly 10 (1): 12–33.Google Scholar
  71. Mitchell, Thomas H. 1985. “Politically-Motivated Terrorism in North America: The Threat and the Response,” Ph.D. dissertation, Carleton University.Google Scholar
  72. Netanyahu, Benjamin. 1986.Terrorism: How the West Can Win. New York: Avon.Google Scholar
  73. Netanyahu, Iddo. 2001.Yoni’s Last Battle: The Rescue at Entebbe. Geffen Books.Google Scholar
  74. Nilson, Chad and Tod Burke. 2002. “Environmental Extremists and the Eco-Terrorism Movement,”ACJS Today 24 (5): 1,3-5.Google Scholar
  75. O’Brien, Sean P. 1996. “Foreign Policy Crises and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 40: 320–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Picard, Robert G. and Paul D. Adams. 1991. “Characterizations of Acts and Perpetrators of Political Violence in Three Elite U.S. Daily Newspapers.” Terrorism and the News Media Research Project.Google Scholar
  77. Posner, Gerald. 2003.Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  78. Pysczynski, Solomon, and Greenberg. 2002.In the Wake of 9/11: The Psychology of Terror. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  79. Reeve, Simon. 1999.The New Jackals. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Ross, Jeffrey Ian. 1988a. “An Events Data Base on Political Terrorism in Canada: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems,”Conflict Quarterly 8 (2): 47–64.Google Scholar
  81. — 1988b. “Attributes of Domestic Political Terrorism in Canada, 1960-1985,”Terrorism: An International Journal 11 (3): 214–233.Google Scholar
  82. Ross, Jeffrey Ian 1991. “The Nature of Contemporary International Terrorism,” in David Charters (ed.)Democratic Responses to International Terrorism. Ardsely on the Hudson: Transnational Publishers, pp. 17-42.Google Scholar
  83. — 1994. “Low Intensity Conflict in the Peaceable Kingdom: The Attributes of International Terrorism in Canada, 1960-1990,”Conflict Quarterly 14 (3): 36–62.Google Scholar
  84. Sandier, Todd, and John L. Scott. 1987. “Terrorist Success in HostageTaking Incidents,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 31: 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sandier, Todd, John T. Tschirhart, and Jon Cauley. 1983. “Transnational Terrorism,”American Political Science Review 77 (1): 36–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schmid, Alex P. 1983.Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  87. Seidman, Neil. 1990.Menachim Begin: His Life and Legacy. New York: Shengold Publications.Google Scholar
  88. Sloan, J.W. 1983. “Political Terrorism in Latin America,” in Michael Stohl (ed.).Politics of Terrorism. (Second Edition). New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 377–396.Google Scholar
  89. Smith, Brent L. 1994.Terrorism in America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe Dreams. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  90. Smith, Brent L. and Kelly Damphousse. 1998. “Terrorism, Politics, and Punishment: A Test of Structural Contextual Theory and Liberation Hypothesis,”Criminology 36 (1): 67–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. — 1996. “Punishing Political Offenders: The Effect of Political Motive on Federal Sentencing Decisions,”Criminology 34 (3): 289–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, Brent L. and Gregory Orvis. 1994. “America’s Response to Terrorism: An Empirical Analysis of Federal Intervention Strategies during the 1980’s,”Justice Quarterly 10 (4): 663–683.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, Colin. 1976.Carlos: Portrait of a Terrorist. London: Sphere Books.Google Scholar
  94. Stewart, J. 1970.The FLQ: Seven Years of Terrorism. Montreal: Montreal Star in cooperation with Simon & Shuster of Canada.Google Scholar
  95. United States. 2004.The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  96. Vallieres, P. 1972a.White Niggers of America. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.Google Scholar
  97. — 1972b.Choose. Toronto: New Press.Google Scholar
  98. Waite, Terry. 1993.Taken on Trust. Harcourt.Google Scholar
  99. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. 1980. Toronto: Thomas Allen & Sons Limited.Google Scholar
  100. Weinberg, Leonard and William L. Eubank. 1987a. “Italian Women Terrorists,”Terrorism: An International Journal 9: 241–262.Google Scholar
  101. —. 1987b.The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Social PolicyUniversity of BaltimoreBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations