Advertisement

The American Sociologist

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 9–28 | Cite as

Giving credit where credit is due: Dorothy Swaine Thomas and the “Thomas Theorem”

  • R. S. Smith
Articles

Abstract

This study examines how Dorothy Swaine Thomas’s connection to the well-known “Thomas Theorem” is documented in introductory sociology texts. W.I. Thomas and Dorothy Swaine Thomas co-authoredThe Child in America (1928) in which the “theorem” first appears. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that Dorothy Swaine Thomas’s connection to these words begins to be cited in the books surveyed. The author suggests one reason for this pattern of neglect is a professional ideology that encouraged a process of genderization in sociology. It is only when women start to gain more visibility in the discipline that Dorothy Swain Thomas begins to be cited. The various ways the texts differ from the basic norms of citation are analyzed and discussed.

Sociology, being a social phenomenon, needs to be studied as one.

Everett Hughes (1958:157)

Keywords

Matthew Effect American Sociological Association Introductory Text Full Credit Introductory Textbook 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bain, Read. 1962. “The Most Important Sociologists?”American Sociological Review 27:746–748.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, Harry E. (ed.). 1948.An Introduction to the History of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barzun, Jacques and Henry F. Graff. 1970.The Modern Researcher. rev. ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, Howard. 1945. “Interpretative Sociology and Constructive Typology.” Pp. 70–95 inTwentieth Century Sociology, edited by Georges Gurvitch and Wilbert E. Moore. New York: The Philosophical Library.Google Scholar
  5. Bielby, Denise D. et al. 1994. “Support for the Nominations Process.”ASA Footnotes 22:8 (April).Google Scholar
  6. Cole, Stephen. 1983. “The Hierarchy of the Sciences?”American Journal of Sociology 89:111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coser, Lewis A. 1978. “American Trends.” Pp. 287–320 inA History of Sociological Analysis, edited by Tom Bottomore and Robert Nisbet. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  8. Daniels, Arlene Kaplan. 1973. “How Free Should Professions Be?” Pp. 39–57 inThe Professions and Their Prospects, edited by Eliot Freidson. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Deegan, Mary Jo. 1981. “Early Women Sociologists and the American Sociological Society: Patterns of Exclusion and Participation.”The American Sociologist 16:14–24.Google Scholar
  10. ————— 1988a. “Transcending a Patriarchal Past: Teaching the History of Women in Sociology.”Teaching Sociology 16:141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. —————. 1988b.Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School, 1892–1918. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  12. —————. 1991.Women in Sociology: A Bio-bibliographical Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  13. Epstein, Cynthia F. 1970. “Encountering the Male Establishment: Sex-Status Limits on Women’s Careers in the Professions.”American Journal of Sociology 75:965–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garfield, Eugene. 1983. “The Ethics of Scientific Publication: Authorship Attribution and Citation Amnesia.” Pp. 622–26 inEssays of an Information Scientist. Vol. 5. Philadelphia: ISI Press.Google Scholar
  15. Geison, Gerald L. 1983. “Introduction.” Pp 3–11 inProfessions and Professional Ideologies in America, edited by Gerald L. Geison. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gilbert, G. Nigel. 1977. “Referencing as Persuasion.”Social Studies of Science 7:113–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldberg, Philip. [1968] 1974. “Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?” Pp. 37–42 inAnd Jill Came Tumbling After. Sexism in American Education, edited by Judith Stacey, Susan Bereaud, and Joan Daniels. New York: Dell Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  18. Gwartney, James D. and Richard Stroup, with A.H. Studenmund. 1983.Economics. Private and Public Choice. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Habegger, Alfred. 1982.Gender, Fantasy, and Realism in American Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, Elaine J. 1988. “One Week for Women? The Structure of Inclusion of Gender Issues in Introductory Textbooks.”Teaching Sociology 16:431–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hart, Hornell. 1927. “The History of Social Thought: A Consensus of American Opinion.”Social Forces 6:190–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hearn, Jeff. 1982. “Notes on Patriarchy, Professionalization and the Semi-Professions.”Sociology 16:184–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hiken, Andrew S. 1991. “Citation Challenges: Building Credibility for Threatening Ideas.”Teaching Sociology 19:502–05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hinkle, Roscoe C. 1980.Founding Theory of American Sociology, 1881–1915. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  25. Hughes, Everett C. 1958.Men and Their Work. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hughes, Helen MacGill. (ed.). 1973.The Status of Women in Sociology: 1968–1972. Washington, DC: The American Sociological Association.Google Scholar
  27. Janowitz, Morris. 1966. “Introduction.” Pp. vii-lviii inW.I. Thomas On Social Organization and Social Personality, edited by Morris Janowitz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. —————. 1972. “Professionalization of Sociology.”American Journal of Sociology 78: 105–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaplan, Norman. 1965. “The Norms of Citation Behavior: Prolegomena to the Footnote.”American Documentation 16:179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keller, Evelyn Fox. 1985.Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Larson, Margali Sarfatti. 1977.The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lee, Everett S. 1979. “Thomas, Dorothy S.” Pp. 763–65 inInternational Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Biographical Supplement, edited by David L. Sills. Vol. 18. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mansfield, Edwin. 1977.Principles of Macroeconomics. 2nd. ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  34. McCarthy, E. Doyle and Robin Das. 1985. “American Sociology’s Idea of Itself: A Review of the Textbook Literature From the Turn of the Century to the Present.”History of Sociology 5:21–43.Google Scholar
  35. McHugh, Peter. 1968.Defining the Situation. The Organization of Meaning in Social Interaction. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  36. Merton, Robert K. [1938] 1968. “Science and the Social Order.” Pp. 591–603 inSocial Theory and Social Structure. Enlarged ed. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  37. ————— [1948] 1968. “The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.” Pp. 475–490 in Social Theory and Social Structure. Enlarged ed. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. ————— [1968] 1973. “The Matthew Effect in Science.” Pp. 439–459 inThe Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, edited by Norman W. Storer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mills, C. Wright. 1943. “The Professional Ideology of Social Pathologists.”American Journal of Sociology 49:165–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moed, H.F. and M. Vriens. 1989. “Possible Inaccuracies Occurring in Citation Analysis.”Journal of Information Science 15:95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oberschall, Anthony. 1972. “The Institutionalization of American Sociology.” Pp. 187–251 inThe Establishment of Empirical Sociology: Studies in Continuity, Discontinuity, and Institutionalization, edited by Anthony Oberschall, foreword by Paul F. Lazarsfeld. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  42. Odum, Howard W. 1951.American Sociology: The Story of Sociology in the United States through 1950. New York: Longmans, Green.Google Scholar
  43. Oromaner, Mark J. 1968. “The Most Cited Sociologists: An Analysis of Introductory Text Citations.”The American Sociologist 3:124–26.Google Scholar
  44. Pandit, Idrisa. 1993. “Citation Errors in Library Literature: A Study of Five Library Science Journals.”Library & Information Science Research 15:185–98.Google Scholar
  45. Perrucci, Robert. 1980. “Sociology and the Introductory Textbook.”The American Sociologist 15:39–49.Google Scholar
  46. Reinharz, Shulamit. 1989. “Teaching the History of Women in Sociology: Or Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Wasn’s She the Woman Married to William I.?”The American Sociologist 20:87–94.Google Scholar
  47. Ritzer, George and David Walczak. 1986.Working: Conflict and Change. 3rd. ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Roby, Pamela A. 1992. “Women and the ASA: Degendering Organizational Structures and Processes, 1964–1974.”The American Sociologist 23:18–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roscoe, Janice. 1991. “Dorothy Swaine Thomas (1899–1977).” Pp. 400–408 inWomen in Sociology: A Biobibliographical Sourcebook, edited by Mary Jo Deegan. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  50. Rose, Phyllis. 1983.Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  51. Rothman, Barbara Katz. 1994. “ASA’s Candidate Slate.”ASA Footnotes 22:8 (March).Google Scholar
  52. Rudolph, Janell and Deborah Brackstone. 1990. “Too Many Scholars Ignore the Basic Rules of Documentation.”The Chronicle of Higher Education (April 11): A56.Google Scholar
  53. Samuelson, Paul A. and William D. Nordhaus, with Michael J. Mandel. 1995.Macroeconomics. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  54. Say, Jean Baptiste. [1803] 1824.A Treatise on Political Economy or, The Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Wealth. 2nd. American ed. trans. by C. R. Prinsep. Additional intro. and notes trans. by Clement C. Biddle. Boston: Wells and Lilly.Google Scholar
  55. Schutz, Alfred. [1955] 1962. “Symbol, Reality, and Society.” Pp. 287–356 inThe Problem of Social Reality, Collected papers 1, edited by Maurice Natanson. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  56. Sills, David L. and Robert K. Merton. (eds.). 1991.International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Social Science Quotations, Vol. 19. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  57. Simpson, Ida Harper and Richard L. Simpson. 1994. “The Transformation of the American Sociological Association.”Sociological Forum 9:259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sweetland, James H. 1989. “Errors in Bibliographic Citations: A Continuing Problem.”Library Quarterly 59:291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Theodore, Athena. 1971. “The Professional Woman: Trends and Prospects.” Pp. 1–38 inThe Professional Woman, edited by Athena Theodore. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  60. Thomas, Dorothy Swaine. 1952. “Experiences in Interdisciplinary Research.”American Sociological Review 17:663–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. —————. 1970. “Contribution to the Herman Wold Festschrift.” Pp. 216–227 inScientists at Work. Festschrift in Honour of Herman Wold, edited by Tore Dalenius, Georg Karlsson, and Sten Malmquist. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.Google Scholar
  62. Thomas, W.I. [1923] 1967.The Unadjusted Girl. With Cases and Standpoint for Behavior Analysis, edited with foreword by Benjamin Nelson. Intro. by Michael Parenti. New York: Harper Torchbooks.Google Scholar
  63. —————. [1931] 1966. “The Relation of Research to the Social Process.” Pp. 289–305 inOn Social Organization and Social Personality, edited with intro. by Morris Janowitz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  64. —————. 1966.On Social Organization and Social Personality, edited with intro. by Morris Janowitz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Thomas W.I. and Dorothy Swaine Thomas. 1928.The Child in America. Behavior Problems and Programs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  66. Thomas, W.I. and Florian Znaniecki. [1918] 1927.The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. Volume One. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  67. Vidich, Arthur J. and Stanford M. Lyman. 1985.American Sociology: Worldly Rejections of Religion and Their Directions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Volkart, Edmund H. (ed.). 1951.Social Behavior and Personality. Contributions of W.I. Thomas to Theory and Social Research. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  69. Wilkinson, Doris. 1979. “A Report: Status of Women in Sociology, 1934–1977.”ASA Footnotes 7:4–6 (March).Google Scholar
  70. Znaniecki, Florian. 1963.Cultural Sciences: Their Origin and Development. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  71. Zuckerman, Harriet. 1977. “Deviant Behavior and Social Control in Science.” Pp. 87–138 inDeviance and Social Change, edited by Edward Sagarin. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Transaction Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Social Science—CGSBoston UniversityBoston

Personalised recommendations