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The Review of Black Political Economy

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 51–71 | Cite as

Structural changes in U.S. agriculture: Implications for African American farmers

  • Adell Brown
  • Ralph D. Christy
  • Tesfa G. Gebremedhin
Articles

Abstract

Structural changes in U.S. agriculture, influenced by technological and institutional forces, have altered the economic and social characteristics of rural America, especially that segment of rural America populated by farmers and their families. Changes in the structure of agriculture have greater implications for small scale farmers, many of whom are African American, in that strategic options for their farm-firms are constrained to: increasing their farm size, exiting farming, and obtaining off-farm employment to survive. This article presents a rationale for public support of limited resource farmers, identifies structural trends in U.S. agriculture and their impacts on African American farmers, discusses economic problems unique to these farmers, and recommends needs for specific public policies and development programs.

Keywords

Small Farm Small Scale Farmer Large Farmer Farm Operator Land Grant College 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

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    In 1890, Congress passed legislation now known as the Second Morrill Act. The First Morrill Act, passed in 1862, established federal support for a college or university in each state to provide training in the fields of agriculture, home economics, and the mechanical arts. However, African Americans under a system of legal segregation in the South were excluded from these schools. The Second Morrill Act provided the impetus for the creation of land-grant institutions for African Americans in sixteen southern states. Alcorn was established in 1878 as a land-grant institution under the First Morrill Act. The Second Morrill Act of 1890 also designated Tuskegee University as a Land Grant Institution, thus today making a total of seventeen colleges and universities commonly referred to as the Historically Black Land-Grant Institutions or “the 1890s.” For a more detailed discussion of the historical development of these colleges and universities, see Ralph D. Christy and Lionel Williamson, eds.A Century of Service: Land Grant Colleges and Universities 1890–1990 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1992).Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adell Brown
  • Ralph D. Christy
  • Tesfa G. Gebremedhin

There are no affiliations available

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