Current Psychology

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 261–292 | Cite as

Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in Temperament

  • Albert Mehrabian


Evidence bearing on the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) Emotional State Model was reviewed and showed that its three nearly orthogonal dimensions provided a sufficiently comprehensive description of emotional states. Temperament was defined as average emotional state across a representative sample of life situations. The Pleasure-Arousability-Dominance (PAD) Temperament Model was described. Evidence relating the PAD Temperament Model to 59 individual difference measures was reviewed. Formulas were offered for use of P, A, and D temperament scores to compute and predict a variety of personality scores (e.g., Anxiety, Depression, Panic, Somatization, Empathy, Affiliation, Achievement, Extroversion, Arousal Seeking, Loneliness, Neuroticism, Suicide Proneness, Binge Eating, Substance Abuse, Emotional Stability, Dependency, Aggressiveness, and Fidgeting).


Trait Anxiety Current Psychology Personality Scale Social Desirability Scale Positive Correlate 
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Copyright information

© Transaction Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Mehrabian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

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