# Astrophysical constants

Reviews,Tables and Plots Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear Properties

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## Keywords

Solar Cycle Cosmic Background Radiation Total Solar Irradiance Large Magellanic Cloud Flat Universe
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## References

- 1.P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor, “CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
**28**, 1713–1852 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 2.B.W. Petley, Nature
**303**, 373 (1983).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 3.The value of
*GN*[1] is the same as in Ref. 26, but the quoted error is 12 times larger. See Measurement, Science, and Technology**10**, No. 6 (June 1999), special section: “The gravitational constant: Theory and experiment 200 years after Cavendish.” In the context of the scale dependence of field theoretic quantities, it should be remarked that absolute lab measurements of*GN*have been performed on scales of 0.01–1.0 m.Google Scholar - 4.
*The Astronomical Almanac for the year 2001*, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, and Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London (1999).Google Scholar - 5.JPL Planetary Ephemerides, E. Myles Standish, Jr., private communication (1989).Google Scholar
- 6.1 AU divided by 7r/648 000; quoted error is from the JPL Planetary Ephemerides value of the AU [5].Google Scholar
- 7.Product of 2/c2 and the heliocentric gravitational constant [4]. The given 9-place accuracy seems consistent with uncertainties in defining the earth's orbital parameters.Google Scholar
- 8.Obtained from the heliocentric gravitational constant [4] and
*GN*[3]. The error is the 1500 ppm standard deviation of*GN*.Google Scholar - 9.1996 mean total solar irradiance (TSI) = 1367.5 ± 2.7 [27]; the solar luminosity is
*4π*× (1 AU)2 times this quantity. This value increased by 0.036% between the minima of solar cycles 21 and 22. It was modulated with an amplitude of 0.039% during solar cycle 21 [28]. Sackmann*et al.*[29] use TSI = 1370 ± 2 W m-2, but conclude that the solar luminosity (L⊙ = 3.853 × 1026 J s-1) has an uncertainty of 1.5%. Their value comes from three 1977-83 papers, and they comment that the error is based on scatter among the reported values, which is substantially in excess of that expected from the individual quoted errors. The conclusion of the 1971 review by Thekaekara and Drummond [30] (1353 ± 1% W m-2) is often quoted [31], The conversion to luminosity is not given in the Thekaekara and Drummond paper, and we cannot exactly reproduce the solar luminosity given in Ref. 31. Finally, a value based on the 1954 spectral curve due to Johnson [32] (1395 ± 1% W m-2, or*L⊙*= 3.92 × 1026 J s-1) has been used widely, and may be the basis for the higher value of the solar luminosity and the corresponding lower value of the solar absolute bolometric magnitude (4.72) still common in the literature [12].Google Scholar - 10.Product of 2/c2, the heliocentric gravitational constant from Ref. 4, and the earth/sun mass ratio, also from Ref. 4. The given 9-place accuracy appears to be consistent with uncertainties in actually defining the earth's orbital parameters.Google Scholar
- 11.Obtained from the geocentric gravitational constant [4] and
*GN*[3]. The error is the 1500 ppm standard deviation of*GN*.Google Scholar - 12.E.W. Kolb and M.S. Turner,
*The Early Universe*, Addison-Wesley (1990).Google Scholar - 13.F.J. Kerr and D. Lynden-Bell, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc.
**221**, 1023- 1038(1985). “On the basis of this review these [*R*_{o}=8.5± 1.1 kpc and Θ_{o}= 220 ± 20 km s^{-1}] were adopted by resolution of IAU Commission 33 on 1985 November 21 at Delhi“.ADSGoogle Scholar - 14.M. J. Reid, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.
**31**, 345–372 (1993). Note that Θ_{o}from the 1985 IAU Commission 33 recommendations is adopted in this review, although the new value for*R*_{o}is smaller.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 15.Conversion using length of tropical year.Google Scholar
- 16.M. Fukugita & C.J. Hogan, “Global Cosmological Parameters:
*Ho*, ΩM and λ,” Sec. 17 of this*Review*.Google Scholar - 17.The final uncertainty arises from dichotomous estimates of the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud.Google Scholar
- 18.G. Gilmore, R.F.G. Wyse, and K. Kuijken, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.
**27**, 555 (1989).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 19.E.I. Gates, G. Gyuk, and M.S. Turner (Astrophys. J.
**449**, L133 (1995)) find the local halo density to be 9.2-3.1/3.8 × 10^{-25}g cm^{-3}, but also comment that previously published estimates are in the range 1-10 × 10^{-25}g cm^{-3}. The value 0.3 GeV/c^{2}has been taken as “standard” in several papers setting limits on WIMP mass limits,*e.g.*in M. Mori*et al.*, Phys. Lett.**B289**, 463 (1992).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 20.Fukugita & Hogan find a more restrictive limit, 0.2 ≲ ΩM <0.4, if the Universe is flat.Google Scholar
- 21.In addition to the pressureless mass density ΩM and the scaled cosmological constant Ωλ, tot contains very small contributions from the cosmic background radiation, the primordial neutrino energy density, and perhaps other sources. 1 - Ωtot is the three-dimensional scalar curvature scaled by the squared inverse Hubble length, variously written as
*kc2*/inoR(t0))2 [12],*Kc2*/H0/2 [36], and Ωk [37]. Thus Ωtot = 1 indicates a flat universe.Google Scholar - 22.First results from both BOOMERANG [33] and MAXIMA-1 [34] indicate ΩM + Ωλ≈ 1with ≈ 10% uncertainties, providing the strongest evidence to date for a flat universe. See discussions elsewhere in this
*Review*concerning the remarkable consistency of ΩM and Ωλ measurements by different methods [16,24,35],Google Scholar - 23.J. Mather
*et al.*, Astrophys. J.**512**, 511 (1999). We quote a one standard deviation uncertainty.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 24.G.F. Smoot & D. Scott, “Cosmic Background Radiation, ” Sec. 19 of this
*Review*.Google Scholar - 25.C.H. Lineweaver
*et al.*, Astrophys. J.**470**, 28 (1996). Dipole velocity is in the direction*(l, b) =*(264°.31±0°.04±0°.16, +48°.05± 0°.02±0°.09), or (α, δ) = (11^{h}11^{m}57^{s}±7°.22±0°.08) (JD2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 26.E.R. Cohen and B.N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys.
**59**, 1121 (1987).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 27.R.C. Willson, Science
**277**, 1963 (1997); the 0.2% error estimate is from R.C. Willson, private correspondence (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 28.R.C. Willson and H.S. Hudson, Nature
**332**, 810 (1988).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 29.I.-J. Sackmann, A.I. Boothroyd, and K.E. Kraemer, Astrophys. J.
**418**, 457 (1993).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar - 30.M.P. Thekaekara and A.J. Drummond, Nature Phys. Sci.
**229**, 6 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar - 31.K.R. Lang,
*Astrophysical Formulae*, Springer-Verlag (1974); K.R. Lang,*Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars*, Springer- Verlag (1992).Google Scholar - 32.F.S. Johnson, J. Meterol.
**11**, 431 (1954).Google Scholar - 33.
- 34.A. Balbi
*et al.*, astro-ph/0005124, submitted to Astrophys. J. Lett.Google Scholar - 35.E.W. Kolb and M.S. Turner, “Pocket Cosmology,” Sec. 15 of this
*Review*.Google Scholar - 36.S. Weinberg,
*Gravitation and Cosmology*, John Wiley & Sons (1972).Google Scholar - 37.P.J.E. Peebles,
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