Advertisement

Treatment outcome study: Seventeen years after sexual offender treatment

  • S. Margretta Dwyer
Article

Abstract

Long-term recidivism rates of 180 male sexual offender treatment completers and almost completers (persons who had been in treatment 2 years plus and had only a few goals to complete) were compared in this study. All men in this study were followed after treatment from 6 months to 17 years by interviews, anonymous questionnaires, and/or criminal record checks. The treatment center, located in Minneapolis, checked all criminal records in Minnesota and surrounding states or country: North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Canada. Seventeen men had reoffended sexually and five others had reoffendedcriminally (theft, DWI, etc.) but notsexually. Only those finishing treatment or nearly finishing treatment were addressed in this study, recognizing that self-selection and program screening may have contributed to the statistical success of this outpatient program. The anonymous questionnaire addressed issues regarding the offender's original offenses and the success or nonsuccess of treatment techniques as judged by them. Data regarding problematic areas still existing in their lives were collected. Of these 180 treated men, 108 men also appeared, or telephoned in, for personal interviews (using a second structured questionnaire, as opposed to the anonymous one mailed to each patient). They were interviewed six times each during the 17 years. The personal interviews yielded other aspects of data used to cross-validate the questionnaires and the criminal record checks. Total sexual recidivism was 9.0%. Data thus indicate that treatment was successful for 91% of these men. The need for more sophisticated research about what constitutes successful treatment is addressed in the discussion.

Key words

behavior therapy cognitive therapy offender treatment outcome research sexual offending 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), APA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Banta, J., Gendreau, R., & Cullen, F. (1990). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis.Criminology, 22, 369–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coleman, E., & Dwyer, S. M. (1990). Proposed standards of care for the treatment of adult sex offenders.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 16, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coleman, E., Cesnik, J., Moore, A., & Dwyer, S. M. (1992). An exploratory study of the role of psychotropic medications in the treatment of sex offenders.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 18, 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dwyer, S. M. (1988). Exhibitionism/voyeurism.Journal of Social Work & Human Sexuality, 7, 101–112.Google Scholar
  6. Dwyer, S. M., & Amberson, J. I. (1985). Sex offender treatment program: A follow-up study.The American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 4, 56–60.Google Scholar
  7. Dwyer, S. M., & Cesnik, J. A. (1991). Medical issues relating to outpatient sexual offender treatment.Preventing Sexual Abuse, 2, 15.Google Scholar
  8. Dwyer, S. M., & Myers, S. (1990). Sex offender treatment: A six-month to ten-year follow-up study.Annals of Sex Research, 3, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dwyer, S. M., & Rosser, B. R. S. (1992). Treatment outcome research: Cross-referencing a six-month to ten-year follow-up study on sex offenders.Annals of Sex Research, 5, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fedoroff, J. P., Hanson, A., McGuire, M., Malin, H. M., & Berlin, F. S. (1992). Simulated paraphilias: A preliminary study of patients who imitate or exaggerate paraphilic symptoms and behaviors.Journal of Forensic Sciences, 37, 902–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fruman, L. S. (1992). Sexual misuse of children by family members: The dynamics of a complex problem.Medicine and Law, 11, 501–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Furby, L., Weinrott, M. R., & Blackshaw, L. (1989). Sex offender recidivism; A review.Psychology Bulletin, 105, 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenberg, D. M., Bradford, J. M. W., & Curry, S. (1993). A comparison of sexual victimization in the childhoods of pedophiles and hebephiles.Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38, 432–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaul, A. (1993). Sex offenders—cure or management?Medical Science and Law, 33, 207–212.Google Scholar
  15. Knopp, F., & Stevenson, W. F. (1989).Nationwide survey of juvenile and adult sex-offender treatment programs and models: 1988. Orwell, VT: The Safer Society Program.Google Scholar
  16. MacHovec, F., & Wieckowski, E. (1992). The 10FC ten-factor continua of classification and treatment criteria for male and female sex offenders.Google Scholar
  17. Maletzky, B. (1987). Data generated by an outpatient sexual abuse clinic.Paper presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Association for the Behavioral Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Newport, OR, Oct.Google Scholar
  18. Marshall, W. L., Jones, R., Ward, T., Johnson, P., & Barbaree, H. G. (1991). Treatment outcome for sex offenders.Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 465–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McGrath, R. J. (1991). Sex-offender risk assessment and disposition planning: A review of empirical and clinical findings.International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 35, 328–350.Google Scholar
  20. Miner, M. H., & Dwyer, S. M. (1995). Analysis of dropouts from outpatient sex offender treatment.Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, Vol. 7(3), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quinsey, V. L. (1986). Men who have sex with children. In D. N. Weisstub (Ed.),Law and mental health: International perspectives, 1, New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Quinsey, V. L., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., & Lalumiere, M. L. (1993). Assessing treatment efficacy in outcome studies of sex offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 512–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Richer, M., & Crismon, M. L. (1993). Pharmacotherapy of sexual offenders.Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 27, 316–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schwartz, B. K. (1992). Effective treatment techniques for sex offenders.Psychiatric Annals, 22, 315–319.Google Scholar
  25. Segal, Z. V., & Marshall, W. L. (1985). Heterosexual social skills in a population of rapists and child molesters.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  26. Segal, Z. V., & Marshall, W. L. (1986). Discrepancies between self-efficacy predictions and actual performance in a population of rapists and child molesters.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vallient, P. M., & Antonowicz, D. H. (1991). Cognitive behavior therapy and social skills training improves personality and cognition in incarcerated offenders.Psychological Reports, 68, 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vallient, P. M., & Antonowicz, D. H. (1992). Rapists, incest offenders, and child molesters in treatment: Cognitive and social skills training.International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 36, 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Margretta Dwyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Program in Human SexualityUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis

Personalised recommendations