Ichthyological Research

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 213–224 | Cite as

Systematic observations on tropical Asian medakas or ricefishes of the genusOryzias, with descriptions of four new species

  • Tyson R. Roberts


The so-calledOryzias melastigma (McClelland, 1839), reported from India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Malaysia by numerous authors beginning with Day (1877), is based mainly or entirely onAplocheilus panchax (Hamilton, 1822). India and Bangladesh have two species ofOryzias, both large. The deeper-bodied of these two species is reported for the first time asO. dancena (Hamilton, 1822). The other is identified asO. carnaticus (Jerdon, 1849). Myanmar has one large species,O. dancena, and one tiny species,O. uwai new species.Oryzias minutillus Smith, 1945 andO. uwai differ from all otherOryzias in having 4/5 instead of 5/6 principal caudal fin rays.Oryzias uwai differs fromO. minutillus in being more conspicuously pigmented and having large, 6-rayed pelvic fins often extending to anal fin origin instead of much smaller and shorter 5-rayed pelvic fins. In Thailand (including its part of the Mekong basin) three species are known: a large estuarine species tentatively identified asO. javanicus (Bleeker, 1854) and two tiny inland species,O. mekongensis Magtoon & Uwa, 1986, andO. minutillus. Oryzias minutillus from many localities are more or less melanoproctic, i.e. have a darkly pigmented genital or vent area not seen in other species. The Mekong basin in Laos has two large species,O. latipes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) andO. pectoralis new species, distinguished by a prominent black blotch on the pectoral fin base, both recently collected in the Nam Theun watershed in central Laos; and two tiny species,O. mekongensis andO. minutillus. Only one species ofOryzias is known from the Mekong delta in Vietnam, the small moderately deep-bodiedO. haugiangensis new species, with 19–22 anal and 9–10 pectoral fin rays. The Indonesian island of Java has one large species,O. javanicus (Bleeker, 1852) with 21–25 anal and 11 pectoral fin rays, and one small species,O. hubbsi new species, with only 17–21 anal and 9 pectoral fin rays.

Key words

Oryzias dancena Oryzias melastigma new species reidentifications karyotype 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Ataur Rahman, A. K. 1989. Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh. Zool. Soc. Bangladesh, Dhaka, 364 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bleeker, P. 1854. Ichthyologische waarnemingen gedaan op verschillende reizen in de residentie Banten. Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind., 7: 309–326.Google Scholar
  3. Bleeker, P. 1860. Ichthyologiae Archipelagi indici prodromi. 2. Cyprini. Lange & Co., Batavia. 492 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Blyth, E. 1858. Report of the Curator, Zoological Department, for May, 1858. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 27: 267–290.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, Y. R., H. Uwa and X. L. Chu. 1989. Taxonomy and distribution of the genusOryzias in Yunnan, China. Acta Taxonom. Sin., 14: 239–246.Google Scholar
  6. Day, F. 1867. On some new or imperfectly known fishes of Madras. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867: 558–565.Google Scholar
  7. Day, F. 1877. The fishes of India; being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and freshwaters of India, Burma, and Ceylon. Part 3. Bernard Quaritch, London. 369–552 pp., pls. 79–138.Google Scholar
  8. Hamilton, F. 1822. An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches. Edinburgh and Scotland. vii+405 pp., atlas, 39 pls.Google Scholar
  9. Hora, S. L. 1929. An aid to the study of Hamilton-Buchanan's “Gangetic Fishes”. Mem. Indian Mus. (Calcutta), 9: 169–192, 11 pls.Google Scholar
  10. Iwamatsu, T., S. Hamaguchi, K. Naruse, K. Takata and H. Uwa. 1993. Stocks ofOryzias species in Japan. The Fish Biology Journal Medaka, 5: 5–10.Google Scholar
  11. Iwamatsu, T., A. Imaki and A. Kawamoto. 1982. OnOryzias javanicus collected at Jakarta and West Kalimantan, Indonesia and Singapore. Annot. Zool. Japan, 55: 190–198.Google Scholar
  12. Jayaram, K. C. 1981. The freshwater fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and Sri Lanka. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. xxii+475 pp., 13 pls.Google Scholar
  13. Jerdon, T. C. 1849. On the freshwater fishes of southern India. Part II. Madras, Madras J. Lit. Sci., 15: 302–346.Google Scholar
  14. Jordan, D. S. and J. O. Snyder. 1906. A review of the Poecillidae or killifishes of Japan. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 31: 161–246.Google Scholar
  15. Magtoon, W., N. Nadee, T. Higashitani, K. Takata and H. Uwa. 1992. Karyotype evolution and geographical distribution of the Thai-medaka,Oryzias minutillus, in Thailand. J. Fish Biol., 41: 489–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McClelland, J. 1839. Indian Cyprinidae. Asiatic Researches (Calcutta), 19: 217–471, pls. 37–55.Google Scholar
  17. Rainboth, W. J. 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO, Rome. xii+265 pp., 27 pls.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, H. M. 1945. The freshwater fishes of Siam, or Thailand. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 188. xi+622 pp., pls. 1–9.Google Scholar
  19. Talwar, P. K. and A. G. Jhingram. 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi. 1158 pp. (2 vols.)Google Scholar
  20. Temminck, C. J. and H. Schlegel. 1846. Pisces, part 10–14. Pages 173–269in P.F. de Siebold. Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823–30 collegit, notis observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit P.F. de Siebold.Google Scholar
  21. Uwa, H. 1986. Karyotype evolution and geographical distribution in the ricefish, genusOryzias (Oryziidae). Pages 867–876in T. Uyeno, R. Arai, T. Taniuchi and K., Matsuura, eds. Indo-Pacific Fish Biology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes. Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  22. Uwa, H., T. Iwamatsu and O. P. Saxena. 1983. Karyotype and cellular DNA content of the Indian ricefish,Oryzias melastigma. Proc. Japan Acad., 59: 43–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Uwa, H. and A. Iwata. 1981. Karyotype and cellular DNA content ofOryzias javanicus (Oryziatidae, Pisces). Chrom. Inf. Serv., 31: 24–26.Google Scholar
  24. Uwa, H. and W. Magtoon. 1986. Description and karyotype of a new ricefish,Oryzias mekongensis, from Thailand. Copeia, 1986: 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Uwa, H. and L. R. Parenti. 1988. Morphometric and meristic variation in ricefishes, genusOryzias: a comparison with cytogenetic data. Japan. J. Ichthyol., 35: 159–166.Google Scholar
  26. Uwa, H., R.-F. Wang and Y.-R. Chen. 1988. Karyotypes and geographical distribution of ricefishes from Yunnan, southwestern China. Japan. J. Ichthyol., 35: 332–340.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The lehthyological Society of Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tyson R. Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of IchthyologyCalifornia Academy of SciencesSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations