Electroencephalographic changes following low energy emission therapy
- 72 Downloads
Low energy emission therapy (LEET) is a novel approach to delivering low levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields to the human brain. The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) effects of a 15-min LEET treatment were investigated in a double-find cross-over study to assess sleep induction. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were exposed to both active and inactive LEET treatment sessions, with a minimum interval of 1 week between the two sessions. Baseline EEGs were obtained, and 15-min posttreatment EEGs were recorded and analyzed according to the Loomis classification. A significant increase in the duration of stage B1 sleep (0.58±2.42 min [mean±SD],p=0.046), decreased latency to the first 10 sec epoch of sleep (−1.23±5.32 min,p=0.051) and decreased latency to sleep stage B2 (−1.21±5.25 min,p=0.052) were observed after active treatment. Additionally, establishment of slow waves with progression from stages B to C was significantly more pronounced after active LEET treatment (p=0.040). A combined analysis of these results with those of an identical study performed in Denver showed that LEET had a significant effect on afternoon sleep induction and maintenance with shorter sleep latencies (decreased latency to the first 10 sec epoch of sleep; −1.00±5.51 min,p=0.033; decreased latency to sleep stage B2; −1.49±5.40 min,p=0.003), an increased duration of stage B2 (0.67±2.50 min,p=0.003), an increase in the total duration of sleep (0.69±4.21 min,p=0.049), and a more prominent establishment of slow waves with progression to a deeper sleep stage (p=0.006). It is concluded that the intermittent 42.7 HZ amplitude modulation of 27.12-MHz electromagnetic fields results in EEG changes consistent with shorter sleep latencies, longer sleep duration, and deeper sleep in healthy subjects.
KeywordsEEG Electroencephalography LEET Electromagnetic fields Electromagnetics Radio waves Sleep Sleep stages
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Adey, W. R., and A. R. Sheppard. Cell surface ionic phenomena in transmembrane signaling to intracellular enzyme systems. In:Mechanistic Approaches to Interactions of Electric and Electromagnetic Fields with Living Systems, edited by M. Blank and E. Find. New York: Plenum Press, 1987, pp. 389–397.Google Scholar
- 3.Hafner, C., and N. Kuster. Computations of electromagnetic fields by the MMP method (GMT).Radio Sci. 26: 291–97, 1991.Google Scholar
- 5.IEEE.IEEE Standards for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields 3 kHz to 300 GHz, IEEE C95.1, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1992.Google Scholar
- 11.Loomis, A., N. Harvey, and G. Hobart. Distribution of disturbance patterns in the human electroencephalogram with special reference to sleep.J. Neuropsychol. 1:413–430, 1938.Google Scholar
- 13.Niedermeyer, E. Sleep and EEG. In:Electroencephalography, Basic Principles, Clinical Applications and Related Fields, edited by E. Niedermeyer and F. Lopes da Silva. Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1987, pp. 119–132.Google Scholar
- 14.Rechtschaffen, A., and A. Kales.A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. NIH Publication 204. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.Google Scholar