Analysis of the central cavity of axisymmetric forward extrusion by the upper bound approach
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In this paper, the use of a kinematically admissible velocity field to predict the presence of a central cavity in the final stage of axisymmetric forward extrusion is advanced, in accordance with the results of Moire experiments. On the basis of the velocity field, the critical condition for central cavity formation is obtained by the upper bound approach. Furthermore, the quantitative relationships between central cavity formation and process parameters (reduction in area, frictional factors on the ram and chamber wall, relative residual thickness of the of the billet) are studied. The results show that (1) the critical relative residual thickness of the billet used for the central cavity formation is affected primarily by the reduction in area and the frictional factors on the ram, and slightly by the frictional factor on the chamber wall; (2) the relative dimensions of the central cavity increase with a decrease in the relative residual thickness of the billet; (3) the growth rate of the central cavity decreases with an increase in the frictional factors on the ram, but is affected by the frictional factors on the chamber wall only slightly. Good correlation is found between the analytical and experimental results.
KeywordsRelative Dimension Chamber Wall Central Cavity Flow Velocity Field Admissible Velocity
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