Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 693–700 | Cite as

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Pb-free solder alloys for low-cost electronic assembly: A review

  • Judith Glazer
Special Issue Papers


Lead-free solders, including Sn-58Bi, Sn-52In, and Sn-3.5Ag, are potential replacements for Sn-37Pb solder in low-cost electronic assembly. This paper reviews the literature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys. Because of the processing and testing conditions, many of the data are not predictive for electronic assembly applications. However, eutectic Sn-Bi seems to have properties approaching those of eutectic Sn-Pb under most conditions, while eutectic Sn-In seems far inferior in most respects. Eutectic Sn-Ag has many promising characteristics, but its relatively high melting temperature may preclude its use for this type of application.

Key words

Electronic assembly lead-free solder 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B.R. Allenby, et al.Proc. Surface Mount Intl. 1992, p. 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.G. Harris and M.A. Whitmore,Circuit World 19 (2), 25 (1993).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Melton, A. Skipor and J. Thome,NepconWest. ’93, p. 1489.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.W. Wild.Tech. Rpt. 171200408, IBM Federal Systems Division Laboratory, Owego NY 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.H. Vincent et al.,Circuit World 19 (3), 32 (1993).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z. Mei and J.W. Morris, Jr.,ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dec. 1–6, 1991, Atlanta, GA, 91-WA-EEP-20.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Seyyedi,Soldering and Surface Mount Tech. 13 (2), 26 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Mei and J.W. Morris, Jr.,J. Electron. Mater. 21,599(1992).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E.W. Hare, R. Corwin and E.K. Riemer,Proc. ASM Intl. Elec. Packaging Math, and Processes Conf., Oct. 1985, (Materials Park, OH: ASM Intl., 1986), p. 109.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Seelig, D. Sklarski. L. Johnson and J. Sartell,Nepcon East. 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z. Mei and J.W. Morris, Jr.,J. Electron. Mater. 21,401(1992).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.L. Freer and J.W. Morris, Jr.,J. Electron. Mater. 21, 647 (1992).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.L. Freer Goldstein and J.W. Morris. Jr., submitted toMet. Trans. A. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.E. Warwick and S.J. Muckett,Circuit World 9 (4), 5 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Haimovich,Weld. Res. Supp. March, 102s (1989).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L.E. Felton, C.H. Raeder and D.B. Knorr.JOM 45 (7), 28 (1993).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.D. Romig, F.G. Yost and P.F. Hlava,Microbeam Analysis— 1984, eds. A.D. Romig, Jr. and J.I. Goldstein, (San Francisco Press, 1984), p. 87.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Humpston and D.M. Jacobson,Principles of Soldering and Brazing, (Materials Park, OH: ASM Intl., 1993).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Satoh,Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronics Packaging, ed. J.H. Lau, (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993), p. 500.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.G. Schmitt-Thomas andS.Wege,Brazing and Soldering 11, Autumn, 27(1986).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Strauss and S. Smernos,The Bulletin of the Bismuth Institute 49, 1 (1986).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.A. MacKay and W.D. von Voss,Mater. Sci. Technol. 1, 240 (1985).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.T. Vianco, F.M. Hosking and J.A. Rejent,Nepcon West 1992, p. 1730.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W.J. Tomlinson and I. Collier,Mater. Sci. Eng. 1835 (1987).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.M. Hosking, P.T. Vianco, C.L. Hernandez and J.A. Rejent,Proc. Surf. Mount Intl., San Jose, CA, Aug. 29–Sept. 2, 1993, p. 476.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Melton,Proc. 43rd ECTC, June 1–4, 1993 Orlando, FL (New York: IEEE), p. 1008.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F.M. Hosking, P.T. Vianco and D.R. Frear,Sandia National Laboratories Rpt. No. SAND90-3248C.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.W. Morris, Jr. and Z. Mei,Solder Mechanics-A State of the Art Assessment, eds., D.R. Frear et al., (Warrendale, PA: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1991).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.S. Hwang and R.M. Vargas,Soldering and Surf. Mount Tech. 4(2)27(1990).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.J. Thwaites and W.B. Hampshire,Weld. Res. Supp. (1976), p. 323s.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W.J. Tomlinson and A. Fullylove,J Mater. Sci. 27, 5777 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L.E. Felton. C.H. Raeder. C.K. Havasy and D.B. Knorr,1992 IEEE/CHMTInt’l. Eke. Mfg. Tech. Symp., Sept. 28–30,1992, Baltimore, MD, p. 300.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R.W. Wild,NEPCON1974, p. 105.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Warwick,Brazing and Soldering 8, Spring, 20 (1985).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Z. Guo, A.F. Sprecher, Jr., H. Conrad and M. Kim,Materials Developments in Microelectronic Packaging, (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 1991).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Quan, D.R. Frear, D. Grivas and J.W. Morris, Jr.,J. Electron. Mater. 16, 203 (1987).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.R. Frear, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California-Berkeley, June 1987.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Pattanaik and V. Raman,Materials Developments in Micro- electronic Packaging: Performance and Reliability, (Materials Park: OH: ASM Intl., 1991), p. 251.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.R. Getten and R.C. Senger.IBMJ. Res. Dev. 26,379 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. London and D.W. Ashall,Brazing and Soldering 10, Spring 17 (1986).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.L. Freer Goldstein and J.W. Morris, Jr.,J. Elect. Mater. 23, 477 (1994).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Lea,A Scientific Guide to Surface Mount Technology, (Ayr, Scotland: Electrochemical Publications, 1988).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Wege,Proc. Conf. Weichloeten in Forschung und Praxis Munich. Feb. 1986, DVS Berichte nr. 104, p. 134.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.W. Morris, Jr., J.L. Freer Goldstein and Z. Mei,The Mechan- ics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, eds., D.R. Frear, H. Morgan, S. Burchett and J.H. Lau, (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994), p. 7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    D.M. Jarboe,Bendix Kansas City Div. internal report, 1980, DBX-613-2341. Referenced in D.R. Frear,Solder Mechanics- A State of the Art Assessment, eds., D.R. Frear. et al. (Warrendale, PA: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1991).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.L. Marshall and S.R. Walter,Intl. J. Hybrid Microelectron. 10, 11 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Metallurgical of Society of AIME 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith Glazer
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronic Assembly Development CenterHewlett Packard CompanyPalo Alto

Personalised recommendations