Advertisement

Effect of binder-phase modification and Cr3C2 addition on properties of WC-IOC0 cemented carbide

  • 333 Accesses

  • 21 Citations

Abstract

For production of fine-grained and corrosion-resistant tungsten carbide (WC) based cemented carbides, addition of chromium carbide (Cr33C2) in small amounts is standard practice. No systematic study, however, has been made of the effects of large additions (maximum 6 wt % ) of Cr3C2 as a substitute for tungsten carbide. This study focuses on the effect of hard-phase substitution by C3C2 in WC-1OCo cemented carbide. An attempt is also made to modify the binder metal cobalt by partial or complete substitution of nickel. Specimens were prepared using the standard liquid-phase sintering process and were tested for sintered porosity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and microstructural parameters. Results confirm the findings of earlier workers regarding grain refinement and improvement of mechanical properties upon the addition of small amounts (<2 wt%) of Cr3C2. Modification of the binder phase improves indentation fracture toughness and corrosion resistance. Addition of Cr3C2 independent of the binder type improves corrosion resistance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 408

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. 1.

    C.T. Peters and S.M. Brabyn, Properties of Nickel Substituted Hardmetals and Their Performance in Hard Rock Drill Bits,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 42 (No. 12), 1987, p 863–865

  2. 2.

    J.J. Oakes, Effect of Cr and Mo Additions to the Binder Phase of Cemented Carbides Used for Rod Mill Rolls,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 42 (No. 7/8), 1987, p 492–499

  3. 3.

    E.A. Almond and B. Roebuck, Some Characteristics of Very Fine Grained Hard Metals,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 42 (No. 7/8), 1987, p512–515

  4. 4.

    A. Egami, T. Kusaka, M. Machida, and K. Kobayashi, Ultra Sub-micron Hardmetals for Miniature Drills,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 44 (No. 12), 1989, p 822–826

  5. 5.

    S. Inada and H. Yoshimura, Material Properties and End Milling Performance of WC-10%Co-0.75%-Cr3C2 Micrograin Cemented Carbide,Proc. 13th Plansee Seminar, Vol 2, H. Bildstein and R. Eck, Ed., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1993, p 67–79

  6. 6.

    L. Yao and C. Yang, Effect of Refractory Carbide Additions on the Characteristics of Binder Phase in WC-Co Hard Alloys,Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Paniculate Materials, Vol 8, J.M. Capus and R.M. German, Ed., Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1992, p 61–63

  7. 7.

    V. Campagnulo, Modern Techniques of Hard Metal Production,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 48 (No. 4), 1993, p 36–40

  8. 8.

    L.J. Prakash, Properties of Submicron WC-Based Cemented Carbides,Met. Powder Rep., Vol 44 (No. 12), 1989, p 835–838

  9. 9.

    E.A. Almond and B. Roebuck, Very Fine Grained Hardmetals,Int. J. Refract. Hard Met., Vol 6 (No. 3), 1987, p 137–144

  10. 10.

    L. Prakash, A Review of the Properties of Tungsten Carbide Hardmetals with Alternative Binder Systems,Proc. 13th Int. Plansee Seminar, Vol 2, H. Bildstein and R. Eck, Ed., Metallwerk. Plansee Reutte, Austria, 1993, p 80–109

  11. 11.

    S. Ekemer, L. Lindholm, and T. Hartzeil, Aspects on Nickel as a Binder Metal in WC-Based Cemented Carbides,Proc. 10th Plansee Seminar, Vol 1, H.M. Ortner, Ed., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1981, p 477–492

  12. 12.

    K.Y. Eun, D.Y. Kim, and D.N. Yoon, Variation of Mechanical Properties with Ni/Co Ratio in WC-(Co-Ni) Hardmetals,Powder Metall., Vol 27 (No. 2), 1984, p 112–114

  13. 13.

    J.M. Barranco and RA. Warenchak, Liquid Phase Sintering of Carbides Using Nickel-Molybdenum Alloy,Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., Vol 8 (No. 2), 1989, p 102–110

  14. 14.

    B. Roebuck and E.A. Almond, A Comparison of the Deformation Characteristics of Co and Ni Alloys Containing Small Amounts of W and C,Proc. 10th Plansee Seminar, Vol 1, H.M.Ortner, Ed., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1981, p 493–508

  15. 15.

    S.M. Brabyn, R. Cooper, and C.T. Peters, Effects of the Substitution of Nickel for Cobalt in WC Based Hardmetal,Proc. 10th Plansee Seminar,Vol 2, H.M. Ortner, Ed.,Metallwerk. Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1981, p 675–692

  16. 16.

    R. Roebuck, E.A. Almond, and A.M. Cottenden, The Influence of Composition, Phase Transformation and Varying the Relative FCC and HCP Phase Contents on the Properties of Dilute Co-W-C Alloys,Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol 66 (No. 2), 1984, p 179–194

  17. 17.

    S.K. Bhaumik, G.S. Upadhyaya, and M.L. Vaidya, Alloy Design of WC-l0Co Hard Metals with Modification in Carbide and Binder Phase,Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., Vol 11 (No. 1), 1992, p 9–22

  18. 18.

    J. Gurland, Application of Quantitative Microscopy to Cemented Carbides,Practical Application of Quantitative Metallography, STP839,J.L.McCallandJ.H.Steele,Jr.,Ed.,ASTM,1984,p65–84

  19. 19.

    “Standard Test Method for Transverse Rupture Strength of Cemented Carbides,” B406-76,Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05, Section 2, ASTM, 1987, p 208–209

  20. 20.

    C.B. Ponton and R.D. Rawlings, Vickers Indentation Fracture Toughness Test, Part I: Review of Literature and Formulation of Standardized Indentation Toughness Equations,Mater. Sci.Technol. , Vol 5 (No. 9), 1989, p 870

  21. 21.

    D.K. Setty, I.G. Wright, P.N. Mincer, and A.H. Clauer, Indentation Fracture of WC-Co Cermets,J. Mater. Sci., Vol 20 (No. 5), 1985,p1873–1882

  22. 22.

    “Standard Practice for Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals,” G31 -72,Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.02, Section 3, ASTM, 1987, p 176–186

  23. 23.

    G.V. Samsonov, V.K. Vitryanuk, and F.I. Chapligin,Tungsten Carbides, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1974, p 60 (in Russian)

  24. 24.

    V.A. Tracey, Nickel in Hard Metals,Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., Vol 11 (No. 3, 1992, p 142

  25. 25.

    B. Uhrenius, Evaluation of Molar Volumes in the Co-W-C System and Calculation of Volume Fractions of Phases in Cemented Carbides,Proc. 13th Int. Plansee Seminar, Vol 2, H. Bildstein and R. Eck, Ed., Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte, Austria, 1993, p 188–199

  26. 26.

    J. Freytag and H.E. Exner, The Influence of Tungsten and Carbon Additions on the Sintering and Magnetic Properties of WC-12Co Cemented Carbide,Modern Developments in Powder Metallurgy, Vol 10, H.H. Hausner and P.V. Taubenblat, Ed., Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1977, p 511–523

  27. 27.

    D.I. Tillwick and I. Joffe, Magnetic Properties of Co-W Alloys in Relation to Sintered WC-Co Compacts,Scr. Metall., Vol 7 (No.5), 1973, p 479–484

  28. 28.

    P. Stecher, F. Benesovsky, and H. Nowotny,Planseeber. Pulvermet, Vol 12, 1964, p 89

  29. 29.

    R. Warren and H. Matzke, Indentation Testing of a Broad Range of Cemented Carbides,Science of Hard Materials, R.K. Viswanadham, D.J. Rowcliffe, and J. Gurland, Ed., Plenum Press, 1983, p 563–582

  30. 30.

    E. Kny and L. Schmid, New Hardmetal Alloys with Improved Erosion and Corrosion Resistance,Int. J. Refract. Mater. Met. Hard, Vol 6 (No. 3), 1987, pl45–148

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Banerjee, D., Lai, G.K. & Upadhyaya, G.S. Effect of binder-phase modification and Cr3C2 addition on properties of WC-IOC0 cemented carbide. JMEP 4, 563–572 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02649588

Download citation

Keywords

  • binder-phase/hard-phase modification in hard metals
  • corrosion resistance of cemented carbides
  • hard metal
  • liquid-phase sintering
  • mechanical properties of cemented carbides
  • WC-l0Co cemented carbides