Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 173–181 | Cite as

Gradient solid electrolytes for thermodynamic measurements: System Na2CO3-Na2SO4

  • Sukanya Mukhopadhyay
  • K. T. JAcob
Physical Chemistry


The thermodynamic properties of Na2CO3-Na2SO4 solid solution with hexagonal structure have been measured in the temperature range of 873 to 1073 K, using a composite-gradient solid electrolyte. The cell used can be represented as Pt, CO2′ + O2∥ Na2CO3Na2 (CO3)x(SO4)1-x) ∥ CO2″ + O2″, Pt The composite-gradient solid electrolyte consisted of pure Na2CO3 at one extremity and the solid solution under study at the other, with variation in composition across the electrolyte. A CO2 + O2 + Ar gas mixture was used to fix the chemical potential of sodium at each electrode. The Nernstian response of the cell to changes in partial pressures of CO2 and O2 at the electrodes has been demonstrated. The activity of Na2CO3 in the solid solution was measured by two techniques. In the first method, the electromotive force (emf) of the cell was measured with the same CO2 + O2 + Ar mixture at both electrodes. The resultant emf is directly related to the activity of Na2CO3 at the solid solution electrode. By the second approach, the activity was calculated from the difference in compositions of CO2 + O2 + Ar mixtures at the two electrodes required to produce a null emf. Both methods gave identical results. The second method is more suitable for gradient solid electrolytes that exhibit significant electronic conduction. The activity of Na2CO3 exhibits positive deviation from Raoult’s law. The excess Gibbs’ energy of mixing of the solid solution can be represented using a subregular solution model such as the following: ΔGE = X(1 - X)[6500(±200)X + 3320(±80)(l - X)] J mol-1 whereX is the mole fraction of Na2CO3. By combining this information with the phase diagram, mixing properties of the liquid phase are obtained.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, and ASM International 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukanya Mukhopadhyay
  • K. T. JAcob
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials Research CenterIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

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