Metallurgical Transactions A

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2655–2668 | Cite as

Precipitation reactions and strengthening behavior in 18 Wt Pct nickel maraging steels

  • Vijay K. Vasudevan
  • Sung J. Kim
  • C. Marvin Wayman


The crystallography, structure, and composition of the strengthening precipitates in maraging steels C-250 and T-250 have been studied utilizing analytical electron microscopy and computersimulated electron diffraction patterns. The kinetics of precipitation were studied by electrical resistivity and microhardness measurements and could be described adequately by the Johnson-Mehl-Avarami equation, with precipitate nucleation occurring on dislocations and growth proceeding by a mechanism in which the dislocations serve as collector lines for solute from the matrix along which pipe diffusion occurs. The strengthening of the Co-free, higher Ti T-250 steel is caused by a refined distribution of Ni3Ti precipitates. High strength is maintained at longer times from the combined effect of a high resistance of these precipitates to coarsening and a small volume fraction of reverted austenite. In the case of the Co-containing, lower Ti C-250 steel, strengthening results from the combined presence of Ni3Ti (initially) and Fe2Mo precipitates (at longer times). Loss of strength at longer times is associated, in part, with overaging and mainly from the larger volume fraction of reverted austenite. The resistance to austenite reversion is dependent on the manner in which the relative nickel content of the martensite matrix is affected by the precipitating phases, and the difference in the reversion tendency between the two steels can be explained on this basis.


Austenite Martensite Metallurgical Transaction Aging Time Selected Area Diffraction Pattern 
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Copyright information

© The Metallurgical of Society of AIME 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vijay K. Vasudevan
    • 1
  • Sung J. Kim
    • 2
  • C. Marvin Wayman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnati
  2. 2.Korea Institute of Machinery and MetalsKyungnamRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of IllinoisUrbana

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