Metallurgical Transactions A

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 55–66 | Cite as

The Effect of Rapid Solidification Velocity on the Microstructure of Ag-Cu Alloys

  • W. J. Boettinger
  • D. Shechtman
  • R. J. Schaefer
  • F. S. Biancaniello
Transformations

Abstract

Electron beam solidification passes have been performed on a series of Ag-Cu alloys between 1 wt pct Cu and the eutectic composition (28.1 wt pct Cu) at speeds between 1.5 and 400 cm per second. At low growth rates conventional dendritic or eutectic structures are obtained. The maximum growth rate of eutectic structure is 2.5 cm per second. At high growth rates microsegregation-free single phase structures are obtained for all compositions. The velocity required to produce this structure increases with composition for dilute alloys and agrees with the theory of absolute stability of a planar liquid-solid interface with equilibrium partitioning. For alloys between 15 and 28 wt pct Cu, the velocity required to produce the microsegregation-free extended solid solution decreases with composition and is related to nonequilibrium trapping of solute at the liquid solid interface. At intermediate growth rates for alloys with 9 wt pct Cu or greater, a structure consisting of alternating bands of cellular and cell-free material is obtained. The bands form approximately parallel to the local interface.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, and W. Klement, Jr.:J. Appl. Phys., 1960, vol. 31, p. 1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.G. Boswell and G.A. Chadwick:J. Mat. Sci., 1977, vol. 12, p. 1879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Stoering and H. Conrad:Acta Metall., 1969, vol. 17, p. 933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Jones:Aluminium, 1978, vol. 54, p. 274.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Jones:Matl. Sci. & Eng., 1969/70, vol. 5, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Furrer and H. Warlimont:Z. Metallkunde, 1973, vol. 64, p. 236.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Kou, S.C. Hsu, and R. Mehrabian:Metall. Trans. B, 1981, vol. 12B, p. 33.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Kadalbal, J. Montoya-Cruz, and T. Z. Kattamis:Rapid Solidification Processing Principles and Technologies, II, R. Mehrabian, B. H. Kear, and M. Cohen, eds., Claitor’s, Baton Rouge, LA, 1980, p. 195.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. G. Lewis, D. A. Gilbert, and P. R. Strutt:Rapid Solidification Processing Principles and Technologies, II, R.Mehrabian, B. H.Kear, and M.Cohen, eds., Claitor’s, Baton Rouge, LA, 1980, p. 221.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, and G. Krauss:Metall. Trans., 1973, vol. 4, p. 2031.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Copley, M. Bass, E.W. Van Stryland, D.G. Beck, and O. Esquivel:Proc. III Int. Conf. Rapidly Quenched Metals, B. Cantor, ed., The Metals Society, London, 1978, vol. 1, p. 147.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.G. Beck, S. M. Copley, and M. Bass:Metall. Trans. A, 1981, vol. 12A, p. 16.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.G. Beck, S.M. Copley, and M. Bass:Metall. Trans. A, 1982, vol. 13A, p. 1879.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.W. Mullins and R. F. Sekerka:J. Appl. Phys., 1964, vol. 35, p. 444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.R. Coriell and R. F. Sekerka:Rapid Solidification Processing Principles and Technologies, II, R. Mehrabian, B.H. Kear, and M. Cohen, eds., Claitor’s, Baton Rouge, LA, 1980, pp. 35–49.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. C. Baker and J. W. Cahn:Acta Metall., 1969, vol. 17, p. 575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. C. Baker and J. W. Cahn:Solidification, ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1971, p. 23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Baeri, G. Foti, D.M. Poate, S.V. Campisano, and A.G. Cullis:Appl. Phys. Lett., 1981, vol. 38, p. 800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. White, B.R. Appleton, B. Stritzker, D.M. Zehner, and S.R. Wilson:Laser and Electron Beam Solid Interactions and Materials Processing, North Holland, NY, 1981, p. 59.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. C. Baker: Ph.D. Thesis, Chapter V, MIT, 1970. Also reported by J. W. Cahn, S. R. Coriell, and W. J. Boettinger:Laser and Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Academic Press, NY, 1980, p. 89.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. J. Aziz:J. Appl. Phys., 1982, vol. 53, p. 1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. A. Jackson, G. H. Gilmer, and H. J. Leamy:Laser and Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Academic Press, NY, 1980, p. 104.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. F. Wood:Phys. Rev., 1982, vol. B25, p. 2786.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.R. Coriell and R. F. Sekerka:J. Crystal Growth, 1983, vol. 61, p. 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    see, for example, P. Löhberg and H. Müller:Z. Metallkunde, 1969, vol. 60, p. 231.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Hillert and B. Sundman:Acta Metall., 1977, vol. 25, p. 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. J. Boettinger, S. R. Coriell, and R. F. Sekerka: Third Conference on Rapid Solidification Processing, held at NBS in December 1982, R. Mehrabian, Chairman.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. L. Murray:Metall. Trans. A, 1984.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Giessen and R.H. Willens:The Use of Phase Diagrams in Ceramics, Glass, and Metal Technology, Academic Press, NY, 1970, vol. 3, p. 103.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. J. Schaefer, W. J. Boettinger, F. S. Biancaniello, and S. R. Coriell:Lasers in Metallurgy, TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1981, p. 43.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. K. Linde:J. Appl. Phys., 1966, vol. 37, p. 934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    B. Giessen:Bull. of Alloy Phase Dia., 1980, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 41.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    . J.H. Perepezko: Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, unpublished research, 1983.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Yamamura and T. Ejima:J. Japanese Inst. Met., 1973, vol. 37, p. 901.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.H. Holloman and D. Turnbull:Prog. Met. Phys., 1953, vol. 4, p. 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. R. Coriell: National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, unpublished research, 1983.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. E. Cline and H. Lee:Acta Metall., 1970, vol. 18, p. 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    W. J. Boettinger:Rapidly Solidified Amorphous and Crystalline Alloys, Elsevier, 1982, p. 15.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    K.A. Jackson and J.D. Hunt:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, p. 1129.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Trivedi: Iowa State University, Ames, IA, unpublished research, 1983.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M.H. Burden and J.D. Hunt:J. Cryst. Growth, 1974, vol. 22, p. 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    B.L. Jones, G. M. Weston, and R.T. Southin:J. Cryst. Growth, 1971, vol. 10, p. 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.H. Burden and J.D. Hunt:J. Cryst. Growth, 1974, vol. 22, p. 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. J. Aziz: Third Conference on Rapid Solidification Processing held at National Bureau of Standards in December 1982, R. Mehrabian, Chairman; alsoAppl. Phys. Lett., 1983, vol. 43, p. 552.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Metallurgical Society of American Institute of Mining 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. J. Boettinger
    • 1
  • D. Shechtman
    • 2
  • R. J. Schaefer
    • 1
  • F. S. Biancaniello
    • 1
  1. 1.Metallurgy Division, Center for Materials Science, National Bureau of StandardsWashington
  2. 2.Department of Materials Engineering, TechnionHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations