Advertisement

Metallurgical Transactions

, Volume 1, Issue 6, pp 1577–1586 | Cite as

The martensite phases in 304 stainless steel

  • Pat L. Mangonon
  • Gareth Thomas
Article

Abstract

A detailed analysis of martensite transformations in 18/8 (304) stainless steel, utilizing transmission electron microscopy and diffraction in conjunction with X-ray and magnetization techniques, has established that the sequence of transformation is γ → ∈ → α. ε is a thermodynamically stable hcp phase whose formation is greatly enhanced as a result of plastic deformation. Comparison with the ε → α transformation in pure Fe-Mn alloys lends further support to the above sequence and suggests that a transformation line between ε and α in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys can be expected. In the 304 stainless steel used in this investigation, formation of α was induced only by plastic deformation and subsequent to formation of ε. Nucleation of α occurs heterogeneously at intersections of ε bands or where ε bands abut twin or grain boundaries (which represent unilaterally compressed regions). From electron diffraction, the Nishiyama relationship between γ and α phases appears to predominate at the start of the transformation, but then changes to that of Kurdjumov-Sachs. Based on these observations, a sequence of atom movements from the hcp structure to the bcc structure is proposed which has the basic geometric features of the martensitic transformation.

Keywords

Martensite Metallurgical Transaction Pure Iron Metallurgical Transaction Volume Transformation Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. M. Wayman:Advan. in Mater. Res. 1968, vol. 3, p. 147.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Cina:Acta Met., 1958, vol. 6, p. 748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Cina:J. Iron SteelInst., 1954, vol. 177, p. 406.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. P. Reed:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, p. 865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. F. Breedis and W. D. Robertson:Acta Met., 1962, vol. 10, p. 1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. P. Reed and C. J. Guntner:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. 230, p. 1713.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Lagneborg:Acta Met., 1964, vol. 12, p. 823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. A. Venables:Phil. Mag., 1962, vol. 7, p. 35.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.Dash and H.M.Otte:Acta Met., 1963, vol. 11, p. 1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. M. Otte and J. Dash:Electron Microscopy, Vol. A, 1964, Proc. Third European Regional Conf., Prague, 1964.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. F. Breedis:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. 230, p. 1583.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. M. Kelly and J. Nutting:J. Iron Steel Inst., 1961, vol. 197, p. 199.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. M. Kelly:Acta Met., 1965, vol. 13, p. 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. J. Goldman, W. D. Robertson, and D. A. Koss:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1964, vol. vol. 230, p. 240.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. J. Guntner and R. P. Reed:Trans. ASM, 1962, vol 55, p. 399.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. L. Mangonon, Jr.: Ph.D. Thesis, UCRL Report 18230, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. L. Mangonon, Jr. and G. Thomas:Met. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, p. 1587.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Thomas, W. Bell, and H. M. Otte:Phys. Stat. Sol., 1965, vol. 12, p. 353.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. A. Hren and G. Thomas:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1963, vol. 227, p. 308.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Seeger:Z. Metallic., 1956, vol. 47, p. 653, 1953, vol. 44, p. 247.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. Bollman:Acta Met., 1961, vol. 9, p. 972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Kaufmann: Iron and Steel Inst. Special Report 93, London, 1965, p. 48.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Schumann:Arch. Eisenhuettenw,, 1967, vol. 38, p. 647.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. H. G. Ashbee:Acta Met., 1967, vol. 15, p. 1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. P. Bundy:J. Appl. Phys., 1965, vol. 36, p. 616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. Pitsch:Arch. Eisenhuettenw., 1967, vol. 38, p. 853.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Zener:Elasticity and Anelasticity of Metals, University of Chicago Press, 1948.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Schumann:Z. Metallic. 1967, vol. 58, p. 207.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Schumann:Neue Huette, 1966, vol. 11, p. 299.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. D. Blackburn, L. Kaufmann, and M. Cohen:ActaMet., 1965, vol. 13, p. 533.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Miyagi and C. M. Wayman:Trans. TMS-AIME, 1966, vol. 236, p. 806.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Hume-Rothery:ActaMet., 1966, vol. 14, p. 560.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Genschaft:Phys. Met. Metall., 1964, vol. 18, p. 107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Metallurgical Society of American Institute of Mining 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pat L. Mangonon
    • 1
  • Gareth Thomas
    • 2
  1. 1.Inland Steel CompanyEast Chicago
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaUSA

Personalised recommendations