Comportement à l’eau des roches argilo-marneuses, suivi du gonflement, importance de la minéralogie et des textures

  • Pejon O. J. 
  • Roux A. Le 
  • Guignard D. 
Article

Résumé

Les roches argilo-calcaires, en présence d’eau, montrent des comportements qui peuvent être sensiblement différents. Dans l’étude que nous présentons, nous nous sommes attachés, sur quatre matériaux représentatifs des formations marneuses souvent rencontrées lors de travaux routiers, à montrer comment ce comportement peut être conditionné par les caractéristiques minéralogiques et texturales des roches.

Après un rappel des principaux mécanismes généralement mis en cause dans les phénomènes de gonflement, nous caractérisons les matériaux sélectionnés en présentant d’une part les paramètres physiques et physico-chimiques mesurés d’autre part les caractéristiques minéralogiques et texturales obtenues en diffractométrie des rayons X et en microscopie électronique à balayage.

Ces matériaux sont ensuite étudiés dans un premier temps en gonflement libre, soumis à des cycles, puis en gonflement sous contraintes. Nous avons ainsi déterminé leur aptitude au gonflement et les pressions de gonflement qui en résultent. Ils sont ensuite regardés d’un point de vue textural.

L’étude au microscope électronique a permis de mettre en évidence: l’évolution des textures et leur rôle dans l’initiation des transformations qui affectent les matériaux.

Le rôle des minéraux accessoires comme la pyrite qui, par oxydation, contribue à la dégradation des minéraux argileux et par voie de conséquence à l’évolution des textures générant in fine une dégradation des caractéristiques mécaniques.

Influence of mineralogy and textures on the behaviour of Clayey and marley rocks in wet conditions

Abstract

In the presence of water, clayey-calcareous rocks display behaviours which are often significantly different. Through the study of four materials which are representative of the marly formations commonly met on the occasion of road construction, the authors show how this behaviour depend on the mineralogical and textural characteristics of rocks.

After reminding the main mechanisms of swelling phenomena the authors characterize the selected materials on the one hand through the measured physical and physico-chemical parameters and on the second hand through the mineralogical and textural characteristics obtained from X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy.

The materials are then studied firstly in “free swelling” conditions submitted to cycles and secondly in “stress swelling” conditions. These studies lead to the determination of their swelling capacity and of resulting swelling pressures. Afterwards, the materials are examined from the textural point of view.

The study with the help of the S.E.M. allowed to point out:
  • —the evolution of textures and their role in the initiation of the changes which affected the materials.

  • —the role of minor minerals such as pyrite, which contribute after oxidation to the degradation of clayey minerals and consequently to the evolution of textures which finally lead to a decay of mechanical characteristics.

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Copyright information

© International Assocaition of Engineering eology 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pejon O. J. 
    • 1
  • Roux A. Le 
    • 2
  • Guignard D. 
    • 2
  1. 1.Departmento de GeotecniaEESC - Universidade de Sao PauloSao Carlos - SPBrésil
  2. 2.Laboratoire Central des Ponts et ChausséesParis Cedex 15France

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