, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 133–138 | Cite as

Changes of dominance rank, age, and tenure of wild Japanese macaque males in the kinkazan a troop during seven years

  • Hiroyuki Takahashi


Male age-rank and tenure-rank relationships were studied for seven years in unprovisioned Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) troop on Kinkazan Island, Japan. Males whose estimated ages were between 15 and 19 yr old monopolized the highest ranks, while older males whose estimated ages were ≥ 20 yr old tended to decline in rank, resulting in a humped age-rank curve. The ranks of males tended to rise as their tenure in the troop increased. The departure of higher-ranking males was the social mechanism for changes in rank, suggesting that the disappearance of higher-ranking males plays an important role in determining rank dominance.

Key Words

Age Macaca fuscata fuscata Rank Troop male Troop tenure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boelkins, R. C.;Wilson, A. P. 1972. Intergroup social dynamics of the Cayo Santiago rhesus (Macaca mulatta) with special reference to changes in group membership by males.Primates, 13: 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chapais, B. 1983. Matriline membership and rhesus reaching high ranks in the natal troop. In:Primate Social Relationships,Hinde,R. A. (ed.), Blackwell, Oxfold, pp. 171–175.Google Scholar
  3. Colvin, J. D. 1986. Proximate causes of male emigration at puberty in rhesus monkeys. In:The Cayo Santiago Macaques,Rawlins,R. G.;Kessler,M. J. (eds.), SUNY Press, Albany, pp. 131–157.Google Scholar
  4. Cowlishaw, G.;Dunbar, R. I. M. 1991. Dominance rank and mating success in male primates.Anim. Behav., 41: 1045–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dittus, W. P. J. 1975. Population dynamics of the toque monkey,Macaca sinica. In:Socioecology and Psychology of Primates,Tuttle,R. H. (ed.), Mouton, The Hague, pp. 125–152.Google Scholar
  6. Drickamer, L. C.;Vessey, S. H. 1973. Group changing in free-ranging male rhesus monkeys.Primates, 14: 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eisenberg, J. F.;Muckenhirn, N. A.;Rudran, R. 1972. The relation between ecology and social structure in primates.Science, 176: 863–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hill, D. A. 1987. Social relationships between adult male and female rhesus macaques: 1. Sexual consortships.Primates, 28: 439–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Izawa, K. 1992. The ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys living in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Prefecture: on the change of birth rate and infant mortality (a supplement).Bull. Miyagi Univ. Educ., 27: 69–75. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  10. Izawa, K. 1998. The ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys living in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Prefecture: on the “alarm call” 〈kuan〉.Bull. Miyagi Univ. Educ., 33: 237–272. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  11. Manson, J. H. 1998. Evolved psychology in a novel environment: male macaques and the “seniority rule.”Human Nature, 9: 97–117.Google Scholar
  12. Maruhashi, T.;Saito, C.;Agetsuma, N. 1998. Home range structure and inter-group competition for land of Japanese macaques in evergreen and deciduous forests.Primates, 39: 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mehlmen, P. 1986. Male intergroup mobility in a wild population of the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), Ghomaran Rif Mountains, Morocco.Amer. J. Primatol., 10: 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. van Noordwijk, M. A.;van Shaik, C. P. 1985. Male migration and rank acquisition in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).Anim. Behav., 33: 849–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van Noordwijk, M. A.;van Shaik, C. P. 1988. Male careers in Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).Behaviour, 107: 25–43.Google Scholar
  16. Norikoshi, K. 1977. On the social structure and dynamics of migration among male Japanese monkeys of Arashiyama. In:Keishitsu, Shinka, Reichorui (Morphology, Evolution, Primates),Kato,T.;Nakao,S.;Umesato,T. (eds.), Chuokoron-sha, Tokyo, pp. 335–370. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Oi, T. 1990. Population organization of wild pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in West Sumatra.Primates, 31: 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Paul, A. 1989. Determinants of male mating success in a large group of barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Affenberg Salem.Primates, 30: 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Paul, A.;Kuester, J. 1985. Intergroup transfer and incest avoidance in semifree-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Salem (FRG).Amer. J. Primatol., 8: 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sato, S. 1988. Monkeys of Kinkazan A-troop.Miyagiken no Nihonzaru, 3: 6–29. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Sprague, D. S. 1989.Male intertroop mobility during the mating seasons among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island, Japan. Ph.D. dis., Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  22. Sprague, D. S. 1991. Mating by non-troop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima.Folia Primatol., 57: 156–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sprague, D. S. 1992. Life history and male intertroop mobility among Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).Int. J. Primatol., 13: 437–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sprague, D. S. 1998. Age, dominance rank, natal status, and tenure among male macaques.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 105: 511–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sprague, D. S.;Suzuki, S.;Takahashi, H.;Sato, S. 1998. Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats.Primates, 39: 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Suzuki, S.;Hill, D. A.;Sprague, D. S. 1998. Intertroop transfer and dominance rank structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan.Int. J. Primatol., 19: 703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Takahashi, H. 1997. Huddling relationships in night sleeping groups among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan Island during winter.Primates, 38: 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Takahashi, H. 2001. Influence of fluctuation in the operational sex ratio to mating of troop and non-troop male Japanese macaques for four years on Kinkazan Island, Japan.Primates, 42: 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vessey, S. H.;Meikle, D. B. 1987. Factors affecting social behaviour and reproductive success of male rhesus monkeys.Int. J. Primatol., 8: 281–292.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Takahashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan

Personalised recommendations