Biotherapy

, Volume 9, Issue 1–3, pp 13–16 | Cite as

Activities and characteristics of transfer factors

  • Charles H. Kirkpatrick
Article

Abstract

This report summarizes three components of our transfer factor research program. Several clinical studies have used oral administration of transfer factor containing materials. Sceptics have rejected these findings by assuming that the acidic and enzymatic environment of the gastrointestinal tract would destroy the factors. To further examine this issue, we have conducted dose-response studies of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice that were given transfer factor either by gavage or subcutaneously. There were no difference in the responses that were related to the route of administration. We conclude that oral route of administration is efficacious and should be used when possible.

We have also studied the effects of transfer factors on immune responses by recipients. The details of this research are presented in the paper by Dr. Alvarez-Thull. Briefly, the study showed that recipients of a specific transfer factor responded to the antigen for which the factor was specific by secreting gamma-IFN, but no other cytokines.

The structures of transfer factor molecules are unknown. We have developed a process for isolating transfer factors in pure form and we have obtained preliminary data concerning amino acid sequences. Our goal is to obtain the complete primary structure of several transfer factor molecules.

Abbreviations

CMV

cytomegalovirus

HBSS

Hanks’ balanced salt solution

IFN-g

gamma interferon

KLH

keyhole limpet hemocyanin

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Peterson EA, Greenberg LE, Manzara T, Rozzo SJ & Kirkpatrick CH. Selective removal of transfer factor activity with antigen. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 65–74.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirkpatrick CH, Rozzo SJ & Mascali JJ. Murine transfer factor. III. Specific interactions between transfer factor and antigen. J Immunol 1985; 135: 4027–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borkowsky W & Lawrence HS. Deletions of antigen-specific activity from leukocyte dialysates containing transfer factor by antigen- coated polystyrene. J Immunol 1981; 126: 486–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rozzo SJ & Kirkpatrick CH Purification of transfer factors. Mol Immunol 1992; 29: 167–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steele RW, Myers MG & Vincent MM. Transfer factor for the prevention of varicella zoster in childhood leukemia. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 355–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dwyer JM: The use of antigen-specific transfer factor in the management of infections with herpes viruses. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 233–43.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Viza D, Rosenfeld F, Phillips J, Vich JM, Denis J, Bonissent JF & Dogbe K. Specific bovine transfer factor for the treatment of herpes infections. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 245–58.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kirkpatrick CH & Greenberg LE. Treatment of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with transfer factor. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 547–62.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeter WS, Kibler R & Stephens CAL. J Reticuloend Soc 1977; 22: 46a.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jeter WS, Kibler R, Soli TC & Stephens CAL. Oral administration of bovine and human dialyzable transfer factor to human volunteers. In: Immune Regulators in Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1979: 452–58.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burger DR, Klesius PH, Vandenbark AA, Vetto RM & Swann AI. Transfer of keyhole limpet hemocyanin dermal reactivity to man with bovine transfer factor. Cell Immunol 1979; 43: 192–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Viza D, Vich JM, Phillips J & Rosenfeld F. Orally administered specific transfer factor for the treatment of herpes infections. Lymphok Res 1985; 4: 27–30.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McMeeking A, Borkowski W, Klesius PH, Bonk S, Holzman RS & Lawrence HS. A controlled trial of bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract for cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS. J Infec Dis 1990; 161: 108–12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petersen EA, Greenberg LE, Manzara T & Kirkpatrick CH. Murine transfer factor. I. Description of the model and evidence for specificity. J Immunol 1981; 126: 2480–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones JF, Minnich LL, Jeter WS, Pritchett RF, Fulginiti VA & Wedgwood RJ. Treatment of childhood combined Epstein-Barr virus/ cytomegalovirus infection with oral bovine transfer factor. Lancet 1981; 2: 122–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones JF, Schumacher MJ, Jeter WS & Hicks MJ. Oral-bovine transfer factor (OTF) use in the hyper-IgE syndrome. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 261–70.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weiner HL, Mackin GA, Matsui M, Orav EJ, Khoury SJ, Dawson DM & Hafler DA. Double blind pilot trial of oral tolerization with myelin antigens in multiple sclerosis. Science 1993; 259: 1321–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trentham DE, Dynesius-Trentham RA, Orav EJ, Combitichi D, Lorenzo C, Sewell KL, Hafler DA & Weiner HL. Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science 1993; 261: 1727–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alvarez-Thull L & Kirkpatrick CH. Profiles of cytokine production in recipients of transfer factors. Biotherapy, 1996; 9: 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gottlieb AA, Foster LF & Waldman SR. What is transfer factor? Lancet 1973; 2: 822–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burger DR, Wampler P, Vandenbark AA & Vetto RM. A structural model for human transfer factor suggested by enzymatic susceptibilities. In: Immune Regulators in Transfer Factors. New York: Academic Press, 1979: 377–85.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson GB, Morin ML, Stuart LD, Williams AM, Floyd E, Paddock GV, Just L & Fudenberg HH. Transfer of cell-mediated immunity in vitro to human lymphocytes using dialyzable leukocyte extracts from immune burros. In: Immunobiology of Transfer Factor. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 213–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Kirkpatrick
    • 1
  1. 1.Innovative Therapeutics, Inc.DenverUSA

Personalised recommendations