In Vitro

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 176–185

Development, characterization, and viral susceptibility of a feline (Felis catus) renal cell line (CRFK)

  • Robert A. Crandell
  • Catherine G. Fabricant
  • Walter A. Nelson-Rees


Cell line CRFK, derived from kidney tissue of a normal domestic kitten, was initiated in 1964. With intermittent periods of storage in the frozen state, it has been grown in vitro during more than 200 passages, without apparent loss of susceptibility to selected viruses. Various herpesviruses and feline viruses belonging to differnet virus groups grow readily and with distinct, cytopathic features. The cells now grow as a smooth monolayer of epithelial-like cells; most have 37 chromosomes (2n−1) and are thus aneuploid for cat karyotype. Three distinct marker chromosomes are identified. The cell line, which is free of mycoplasmal contaimination, is useful in feline virus research and diagnostic medicine and has become of particular interest in cancer research.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fabricant, C. G., L. J. Rich, and J. H. Gillespie. 1969. Feline viruses. XI. Isolation of a virus similar to a myxovirus from cats in which urolithiasis was experimentally induced. Cornell Vet. 59: 667–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee, K. M., A. J. Kniazeff, C. G. Fabricant, and J. H. Gillespie. 1969. Utilization of various cell culture systems for propagation of certain feline viruses and canine herpes virus. Cornell Vet. 59: 539–547.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schafer, T. W., A. Pascale, S. Shimonaski, and P. E. Came. 1972. Evaluation of Gentamicin for use in virology and tissue culture. Appl. Microbiol. 23: 565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scott, F. W., C. K. Csiza, and J. H. Gillespie. 1970. Feline viruses. IV. Isolation and characterization of feline panleukopenia virus in tissue culture and comparison of cytopathogenicity with feline picornavirus, herpesvirus, and reovirus. Cornell Vet. 60: 165–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee, K. M., S. Nomura, R. H. Bassin, and P. J. Fischinger. 1972. Use of an established cat cell line for investigation and quantitation of feline oncornaviruses. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41: 55–60.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Livingston, D. M., and G. T. Todaro. 1973. Endogenous type C virus from a cat cell clone with properties distinct from previously described feline type C viruses. Virology 53: 142–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sarma, P. S., J. Tseng, Y. K. Lee, and R. V. Gilden. 1973. Virus similar to RD-114 virus in cat cells. Nature New Biol. 244: 56–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fabricant, C. G., J. M. King, J. M. Gaskin, and J. H. Gillespie. 1971. Isolation of a virus from a female cat with urolithiasis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158: 200–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fabricant, C. G., and L. J. Rich. 1971. Microbial studies of feline urolithiasis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158: 976–980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rich, L. J., C. G. Fabricant, and J. H. Gillespie. 1971. Virus induced urolithiasis in male cats. Cornell Vet. 61: 542–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crandell, R. A., and L. Michuda. 1973. Isolation and application of a bovine parainfluenza-3 virus variant to veterinary diagnostic medicine. Proc. U. S. Anim. Health Assoc., in press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fabricant, C. G., and J. H. Gillespie. The identification and characteristics of a second feline herpesvirus. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fabricant, C. G., J. H. Gillespie, and L. Krook. 1971. Intracellular and extracellular mineral crystal formation induced by viral infection of cell cultures. Infect. Immun. 3: 416–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okabe, H., R. V. Gilden, and M. Hatanaka. 1973. Extensive homology of RD-114 virus DNA with RNA of feline cell origin. Nature New Biol. 244: 54–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fischinger, P. J., P. T. Peebles, S. Nomura, and D. K. Haapala. 1973. Isolation of an RD-114-like oncornavirus from a cat cell line. J. Virol. 11: 978–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McAllister, R. M., W. A. Nelson-Rees, E. Y. Johnson, R. W. Rongey, and M. B. Gardner. 1971. Disseminated rhabdomyosarcomas formed in kittens by cultured human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47: 603–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McAllister, R. M., M. Nicolson, M. B. Gardner, R. W. Rongey, S. Rasheed, P. S. Sarma, R. J. Huebner, M. Hatanaka, S. Orozlan, R. V. Gilden, A. Kabigting, and L. Vernon. 1972. C-type virus released from cultured human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Nature New Biol. 235: 3–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Madin, S. H., P. C. Andriese, and N. B. Darby. 1957. Thein vitro cultivation of tissues of domestic and laboratory animals. Am. J. Vet. Res. 18: 932–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fabricant, J., and T. L. Barber. 1969. The laboratory diagnosis of mycoplasma infections. Proc. U. S. Anim. Health Assoc. 73: 573–581.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Al-Aubaidi, J. M., and J. Fabricant. 1971. Methods for purification of mixed cultures of mycoplasma. Cornell Vet. 61: 559–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chalquest, R. R., and J. Fabricant. 1960. Pleuropneumonia-like organisms associated with synovitis in fowl. Avian Dis. 4: 515–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rothfels, K. H., and L. Siminovitch. 1958. An air drying technique for flattening chromosomes in mammalian cells grownin vitro. Stain Technol. 33: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hsu, T. C., and K. Benirsche (Eds). 1967.An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes, Vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 31.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reed, L. J., and M. Muench. 1938. A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am. J. Hyg. 27: 493–497.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nelson-Rees, W. A., A. J. Kniazeff, and N. B. Darby, Jr. 1966. Chromatin bridges and origin of multinucleated cells in a bovine testicular cell line. Cytogenetics 5: 164–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stanbridge, E. 1971. Mycoplasmas and cell cultures. Bacteriol. Rev. 35: 206–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fogh, J., N. B. Holmgren, and P. P. Ludovici. 1971. A review of cell culture contaminations. In Vitro 7: 26–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fabricant, C. G., J. Fabricant, and P. J. Van-Demark. 1964. Studies on nutrition and growth requirements ofMycoplasma gallisepticum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 35: 135–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gori, G. B., and D. Y. Lee. 1964. A method for eradication of mycoplasma infections in cell cultures. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 117: 918–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnson, R. W., and M. D. Orlando. 1967. Elimination of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue culture. Appl. Microbiol. 15: 209–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fabricant, J. 1960–1973. Personal communications.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crandell, R. A., Y. F. Herman, J. R. Ganaway, and W. H. Niemann. 1961. Susceptibility of primary cultures of feline renal cells to selected viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 106: 542–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Crandell, R. A. 1967. A description of eight feline picornaviruses and an attempt to classify them. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126: 240–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aaronson, S. A., J. W. Hartley, and G. J. Todaro. 1969. Mouse leukemia virus: “spontaneous” release by mouse embryo cells after long-term in vitro cultivation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 64: 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vogt, P. K., and R. R. Friis, 1971. An avian leukosis virus related to RSV(0): properties and evidence for helper activity. Virology 43: 223–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tissue Culture Association 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Crandell
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Catherine G. Fabricant
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Walter A. Nelson-Rees
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratories of Veterinary Diagnostic MedicineUniversity of IllinoisUrbana
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, New York State Veterinary CollegeCornell UniversityIthaca
  3. 3.Naval Biomedical Research Laboratory, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaOakland

Personalised recommendations