Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 9, Issue 10, pp 563–568 | Cite as

Separating the wheat from the chaff

Identifying fallacies in pharmaceutical promotion
  • Allen F. Shaughnessy
  • David C. Slawson
  • Joshua H. Bennett
Perspectives

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Clark E. The Want Makers: The World of Advertising: How They Make You Buy. New York: Viking Penguin. 1989;13,24:18,202–32.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schoell WF, Guiltinan JP. Marketing Contemporary Concepts and Practices. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1990;488.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karlins M, Abelson HI. Persuasion. How opinions and attitudes are changed. New York: Springer Publishing. 1970;33:19–21.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johnson RH, Blair JA. Logical Self-defense. 2nd ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. 1983;246.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith MC, Visconti JA. Appeals used in prescription drug advertising. Hosp Pharm. 1968;3:5–13.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith MC. Pharmaceutical Marketing. Strategy and Cases. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. 1991;327–94.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salmon MH. Introduction to logic and critical thinking. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1984;3.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rawlins MD. Doctors and the drug makers. Lancet. 1984;2:276–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bowman MA, Pearle DL. Changes in drug prescribing patterns related to commercial company funding of continuing medical education. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 1988;8:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chren MM, Landefield CS. Physicians’ behavior and their interactions with drug companies: a controlled study of physicians who requested additions to a hospital drug formulary. JAMA. 1994;271:684–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anonymous. Tagamet “greater safety” claim over Zantac is “unsubstantiated.” F-D-C Rep. 1987;Oct 5:T & G1–2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kahane H. Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric. The Use of Reason in Everyday Life. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chren M, Landefeld S, Murray TH. Doctors, drug companies, and gifts. JAMA. 1989;262:3448–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Janis I, Kaye D, Kirshner P. Facilitating effects of “eating-while-reading” on responsiveness to persuasive communications. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1965;1:181–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. American Medical Association. Gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 1991;265:501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CMA policy summary. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Can Med Assoc J. 1992;146:388A-388C.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    American College of Physicians. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:624–6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shaughnessy AF. Drug promotion in a family medicine training center. JAMA. 1988;260:926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fleming M, Levie WH. Instructional Message Design. Principles from the Behavioral Sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1978;237–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Britt SH. Psychological principles of marketing and consumer behavior. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath. 1978;XV:206.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nickerson RS. Why teach thinking? In: Boykoff JB, Sternberg RJ (eds). Teaching Thinking Skills. Theory and Practice. New York: W. H. Freeman. 1987;27–38.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Verma S. “A matter of influence”: graduate medical education and commercial sponsorship. N Engl J Med. 1988;317:52.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schrank J. Deception Detection. Boston: Bacon Press, 1975;3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything. J Fam Pract. 1994;38:505–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guyatt GH, Sackett DI, Cook DJ; for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users’ guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. A Are the results of the study valid? JAMA. 1993;270:2598–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eddy DM. Practice policies: where do they come from? JAMA. 1990;263:165–75.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kessler DA. Addressing the problem of misleading advertising. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:950–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garai PR. Advertising and promotion of drugs. In: Talalay P (ed). Drugs in our Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1964;189–202.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen F. Shaughnessy
    • 1
  • David C. Slawson
  • Joshua H. Bennett
  1. 1.Harrisburg Hospital Family Practice Residency ProgramHarrisburg HospitalHarrisburg

Personalised recommendations