Advertisement

Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 220–224 | Cite as

Accepting death without artificial nutrition or hydration

  • Robert J. SullivanJr
Clinical Reviews

Keywords

Anorexia Nervosa Tube Feeding Esophageal Stricture Intermittent Fast Prolonged Starvation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Steinbock B. The removal of Mr. Herbert’s feeding tube. Hastings Cent Rep. 1983;13:13–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brahams D. The right to be allowed to die: self induced starvation and the right to die without undue misery. Med Leg J. 1984;52:113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dresser RS. Ethics law and nutritional support. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:122–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Micetich KC, Steinecker PH, Thomasma DC. Are intravenous fluids morally required for a dying patient? Arch Intern Med. 1983;143:975–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Olins NJ. Feeding decisions for incompetent patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;34:313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Conroy, 486A. 2d 1209 (NJ1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steinbrook R, Lo B. Artificial feeding: solid ground, not a slippery slope. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meyers DW. Legal aspects of withdrawing nourishment from an incurably ill patient. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:125–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Callahan D. On feeding the dying. Hastings Cent Rep. 1983;13:22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deciding to forego life-sustaining treatment: a report on the ethical, medical and legal issues in treatment decisions. Washington, DC: President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1983.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American College of Physicians ethics manual. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:333.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Current opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association—1989: witholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1989.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ciocon JO, Silverstone FA, Graver LM, Foley CJ. Tube feedings in elderly patients: indications, benefits, and complications. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:429–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Quill TE. Utilization feeding tubes in a group of chronically ill, elderly patients in a community hospital. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:1937–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Champlin L. Compassionate witholding of feeding: are physicians protected? Geriatrics. 1987;42:37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lo B, Dornbrand L. Guiding the hand that feeds. N Engl J Med. 1984;311:402–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lo B, Dornbrand L. Understanding the benefits and burdens of tube feedings. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:1925–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    May M, Nellis KJ. Nasogastric intubation: avoiding complications. Resident Staff Phys. 1984;30:60–2.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lipman TO, Kessler T, Arabian A. Nasopulmonary intubation with feeding tubes: case reports and review of the literature. J Parenter Enter Nutr. 1985;9:618–20.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boscoe MJ, Rosin MD. Finebore enteral feeding and pulmonary aspiration. BMJ. 1984;289:1421–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miller SK, Tomlinson JR, Sahn SA. Pleuropulmonary complications of enteral tube feedings. Chest. 1985;88:230–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schorlemmer GR, Battaglini JW. An unusual complication of nasoenteral feeding with small diameter feeding tube. Ann Surg. 1984;199:104–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCredie JA, McDowell RFC. Esophageal stricture following intubation in a case of hiatus hernia. Br J Surg. 1958;46:260–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Douglas KW. Esophageal strictures associated with gastroduodenal intubation. Br J Surg. 1955;43:404–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hafner CD, Wylie JH, Brush BE. Complications of gastrointestinal intubation. Arch Surg. 1961;83:147–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rombeau JL, Barot LR. Enteral nutrition therapy. Surg Clin North Am. 1981;61:605–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sullivan R. When your patient decides to die. N C Med J. 1987;48:223–4.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kastin AJ, Lipsett MB, Ommaya AK, Moser JM. Asymptomatic hypernatremia. Am J Med. 1965;38:306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nadal JW, Pedersen S, Maddock WG. A comparison between dehydration from salt loss and from water deprivation. J Clin Invest. 1941;20:691–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Billings JA. Comfort measures for the terminally ill: is dehydration painful? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985;33:808–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rose BD. Hyperosmolar states—hypernatremia. In: Rose BD. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1989;639.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arieff AI, Guisado R. Effects on the central nervous system of hypernatremic and hyponatremic states. Kidney Int. 1976;10:104–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cahill GF. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma: a syndrome almost unique to the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1983;31:103–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Terminal dehydration [editorial]. Lancet. 1986;1:306.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zerwekh JV. The dehydration question. Nursing. 1983;83:47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baines MJ. Control of other symptoms. In: Saunders CM (ed). The management of terminal illness. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lamerton R. Care of the dying. New York: Penguin Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Billings JA. Outpatient management of advanced cancer: symptom control, support and hospice-in-the-home. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1985.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Arbesmann R. Fasting and prophecy in pagan and Christian antiquity. Traditio. 1951;7:1–71.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Luke. 4:1–2.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Matthew. 4:3–3.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kerndt PR, Naughton JL, Driscoll CE, Loxterkamp DA. Fasting: the history, pathophysiology and complications. West J Med. 1982;137:379–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sinclair U. The fasting cure. New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1911.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Haskel CC. Perfect health—how to get it and how to keep it. London: L. N. Fowler, 1901.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Benedict FG. A study of prolonged fasting. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Folin O, Denis W. On starvation and obesity, with special reference to acidosis. J Biol Chem. 1915;21:183–92.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bloom WL. Fasting as an introduction to the treatment of obesity. Metabolism. 1959;8:214–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Duncan GG, Jenson WK, Cristofori FC, Schless GL. Intermittent fasts in the correction and control of intractable obesity. Am J Med Sci. 1963;245:515–20.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Owen OE, Caprio S, Reichard GA, Mozzoli MA, Boden G, Owen RS. Ketosis of starvation: a revisit and new perspectives. Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 1983;12:357–79.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stunkard AF, Rush J. Dieting and depression reexamined: a critical review of reports of untoward responses during weight reduction for obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1974;81:525–33.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Saudek CD, Felig F. The metabolic events of starvation. Am J Med. 1976;60:117–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Felig P, Owen OE, Wahren J, Cahill GF. Amino acid metabolism during prolonged starvation. J Clin Invest. 1969;48:584–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aoki TT, Muller WA, Brennan MF, Cahill GF. Metabolic effects of glucose in brief and prolonged fasted man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1975;28:507–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen, Taylor HL. The biology of human starvation. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zimmer R, Weill J, Dubois M. The nutritional situation in the camps of the unoccupied zone of France in 1941 and 1942 and its consequences. N Engl J Med. 1944;230:303–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cahill GF. Starvation in man. N Engl J Med. 1970;282:668–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Drenick EJ, Swenseid ME, Blahd WH, Tuttle SG. Prolonged starvation as treatment for severe obesity. JAMA. 1964;187:100–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Thomson JT, Runcie J, Miler V. Treatment of obesity by total fasting for up to 249 days. Lancet. 1966;2:992–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stewart WK, Fleming LW. Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days’ duration. Postgrad Med J. 1973;49:203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Spencer IOB. Death during therapeutic starvation for obesity. Lancet. 1968;1:1288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Garnett ES, Barnard DL, Ford J, Goodbody RA, Woodehouse MA. Gross fragmentation of cardiac myofibrils after therapeutic starvation for obesity. Lancet. 1969;1:914–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Runcie J, Thomson TJ. Prolonged starvation—a dangerous procedure? BMJ. 1970;3:432–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fisler JS, Drenick EJ. Starvation and semistarvation diets in the management of obesity. Annu Rev Nutr. 1987;7:465–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Michiel RR, Sheider JS, Dickstein RA, Hayman H, Eich RH. Sudden death in a patient on a liquid protein diet. N Engl J Med. 1978;298:1005–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vertes V, Genuth SM, Hazelton IM. Supplemented fasting as a large-scale outpatient program. JAMA. 1977;238:2151–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Baird IM, Parsons RL, Howard AN. Clinical and metabolic studies of chemically defined diets in the management of obesity. Metabolism. 1974;23:645–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hamm RJ, Lyeth BG. Nociceptive thresholds following food restriction and return to free-feeding. Physiol Behav. 1984;33:499–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hamm RJ, Knisely JS, Watson A, Lyeth BG, Bossut FB. Hormonal mediation of the analgesia produced by food deprivation. Physiol Behav. 1985;35:879–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bodner RJ, Kelly DD, Spiaggia A, Glusman M. Biphasic alterations of nociceptive thresholds induced by deprivation. Physiol Psychol. 1978;6:391–5.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cahill GF. Starvation in man. Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 1976;5:397–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fliederbaum J. Clinical aspects of hunger disease in adults. In: Winick M (ed). Hunger disease—studies by the Jewish physicians in the Warsaw ghetto. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1979;11–36.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Korock M. Hunger strikers may have died of fat, not protein loss. JAMA. 1981;246:1878–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Leiter LA, Marliss EB. Survival during fasting may depend on fat as well as protein stores. JAMA. 1982;248:2306–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jack HA. Gandhi reader: a source book of his life and writings. New York: AMS Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Drenick EJ, Fisler JL, Dennin HF. The effect of allopurinol on the hyperuricemia of fasting. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1971;12:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Silber T. Anorexia nervosa: morbidity and mortality. Pediatr Ann. 1984;13:851–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. SullivanJr
    • 1
  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurham

Personalised recommendations