Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 199–209 | Cite as

Hepatobiliary complications of oral contraceptives

  • Michael C. Lindberg
Clinical Reviews


Oral Contraceptive Cholestasis Gallbladder Disease Intrahepatic Cholestasis Cholestatic Jaundice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Forrest JD, Fordyce RR. U.S. woman’s contraceptive attitudes and practice: how have they changed in the 1980’s? Fam Plann Perspect. 1988;20:112–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vessey M, Lawless M, Yeates D. Efficacy of different contraceptive methods. Lancet. 1982;1:841–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meade TW, Greenberg G, Thompson SG. Progestogens and cardiovascular reactions associated with oral contraceptives and a comparison of 50- and 30-µg estrogen preparations. Br Med J. 1980;280:1157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bottiger LE, Boman G, Eklund G, Westerholm B. Oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease: effects of lowering estrogen content. Lancet. 1980;1:1097–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Porter JB, Jick H, Walker AM. Mortality among oral contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meade TW. Oral contraceptives, clotting factors and thrombosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;142:758–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zafrani ES, Pinaudeau Y, Dhumeaux D. Drug-induced vascular lesions of the liver. Arch Intern Med. 1983;143:495–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women. Oral contraception and increased risk of cerebral ischemia or thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1973;288:871–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Connell EB. Oral contraceptives. The current risk-benefit ratio. J Reprod Med. 1984;29:513–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wynn V, Godsland I. Effects of oral contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism. J Reprod Med. 1986;31:898–905.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Wall DM, Roos MP. Update on combination oral contraceptives. Am Fam Pract. 1990;42:1037–48.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    DeLia JE, Emery MG. Clinical pharmacology and common minor side effects of oral contraceptives. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1981;24:879–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 14.
    Larsson-Cohn U. Oral contraceptives and liver function tests. Br Med J. 1965;1:1414–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 15.
    Stoll BA, Andrews JT, Motteran R. Liver damage from oral contraceptives. Br Med J. 1966;1:960–1.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Kreek MJ, Sleisenger MH, Jeffries GH. Recurrent cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy with demonstrated estrogen sensitivity. Am J Med. 1967;43:795–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 17.
    Fast BB, Roulston TM. Idiopathic jaundice of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1963;88:314–21.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Boake WC, Schade SG, Morrissey JF, Schaffner F. Intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy following Enovid-induced cholestatic jaundice. Ann Intern Med. 1965;63:302–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 19.
    Ylostola P. Liver function in cholestasis of pregnancy and preeclampsia — with special reference to bromsulphthalein tests. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1970;49(suppl 4):1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 20.
    Kleiner GJ, Kresch L, Arias IM. Studies of hepatic excretory function: II. The effect of norethynodrel and mestranol on bromsulphthalein sodium metabolism in women of childbearing age. N Engl J Med. 1965;273:420–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 21.
    Allen JS, Tyler ET. Biochemical findings in long-term oral contraceptive usage: I. Liver function studies. Fertil Steril. 1967;18:112–23.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    Kreek MJ, Sleisenger MH. Estrogen-induced cholestasis due to endogenous and exogenous hormone. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970;7(suppl):123–31.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Kreek MJ. Female sex steroids and cholestasis. Semin Liver Dis. 1978;7:8–23.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Dalen E, Westerholm B. Occurrence of hepatic impairment in women jaundiced by oral contraceptives in their mothers and sisters. Acta Med Scand. 1974;195:459–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 25.
    Reyes H, Ribalta J, Gonzalez MC, et al. Sulfobromophthalein clearance tests before and after ethinyl estradiol administration in women and men with a familial history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gastroenterology. 1981;81:226–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Arfwedson H. General pruritus of pregnancy: symptoms of liver dysfunction. Obstet Gynecol. 1956;7:274–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 27.
    Holzbach RT, Sanders JH. Recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. JAMA. 1965;193:204–206.Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    Sandovsky E, Eliakim M, Schenker JR. Pruritus gravidarum of hepatic origin. Israel J Med Sci. 1970;6:540–3.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    Topp JR, Charles B. Pruritus of pregnancy: symptoms of hepatic dysfunction with report of two cases. Can Med Assoc J. 1961;85:724–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Furhoff AK. Itching in pregnancy. Acta Med Scand. 1974;196:403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 31.
    Shaw D, Frohlick J, Wittman BA, Willms M. A prospective study of 18 patients with cholestasis of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;142:621–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 32.
    Scharschmidt BF, Goldberg HI, Schmid R. Approach to the patient with cholestatic jaundice. N Engl J Med. 1983;308:1515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 33.
    Schenker S, Balint J, Schiff L. Differential diagnosis of jaundice: report of a prospective study of 61 proven cases. Am J Dig Dis. 1962;7:449–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 34.
    Wheeler PG, Theodossi A, Pickford R, et al. Non-invasive techniques in the diagnosis of jaundice — ultrasound and computerized tomography. Gut. 1979;20:196–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 35.
    O’Connor KW, Snodgrass PJ, Snowder JF, et al. A blinded prospective study comparing four current non-invasive approaches in the differential diagnosis of medical versus surgical jaundice. Gastroenterology. 1983;84:1498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 36.
    Lance P, Bevan PG, Hoult JG, Paten A. Liver biopsy in “difficult” jaundice. Br Med J. 1977;2:236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Krook PM, Allen FG, Bush WH Jr, et al. Comparison of real-time cholecystsonography and/or cholecystography. Radiology. 1980;135:145–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Baron RL, Stanley RJ, Lee JK, et al. A prospective comparison of the evaluation of biliary obstruction using computerized tomography and ultrasonography. Radiology. 1982;145:91–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    Gross BH, Harter LP, Gore RM, et al. Ultrasonic evaluation of common bile duct stone: prospective comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Radiology. 1983;146:467–9.Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    Mueller PR, Harbin WP, Ferrucci JT Jr, et al. Fine needle transhepatic cholangiography: reflection after 450 cases. AJR. 1981;136:85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 41.
    Mueller PR, van Sonnenberg E, Simeone JF. Fine needle transhepatic cholangiography: indications and usefulness. Ann Intern Med. 1982;97:567–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 42.
    Ellas E, Hamlyn AN, Jain S, et al. A randomized trial of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with CIBA needle versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for bile duct visualization in jaundice. Gastroenterology. 1976;71:439–43.Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    Matzen P, Hanbek A, Holst-Christensen J, et al. Accuracy of direct cholangiography by endoscopic or transhepatic route in jaundice—a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1981;81:237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 44.
    Cohen L, Lewis C, Arias IM. Pregnancy, oral contraceptives and family jaundice with predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (Dubin-Johnson syndrome). Gastroenterology. 1972;62:1182–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 45.
    Zimmerman HJ. Liver disease caused by medicinal agents. Med Clin North Am. 1975;59:897–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 46.
    Zimmerman HJ, Malddry WC. Toxic and drug induced hepatitis. In Schiff L, Schiff ER, eds. Disease of the liver. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1987;591–668.Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    Plaa GL, Priestly BG. Intrahepatic cholestasis induced by drugs and chemicals. Pharmacol Rev. 1977;28:207–73.Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Programme. Oral contraceptive and venous thromboembolic disease, surgically confirmed gall-bladder disease, and breast tumors. Lancet 1973;1:1399–404.Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    Bennion LJ, Ginsberg RL, Garnick MB, Bennett PH. Effects of oral contraceptives on the gallbladder of normal women. N Engl J Med. 1976;294:189–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Honore LH. Increased incidence of symptomatic cholesterol cholelithiasis in perimenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement therapy. J Reprod Med. 1980;25:187–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    Lynn J, Williams L, O’Brien J, et al. Effects of estrogen upon bile: implications with respect to gallstone formation. Ann Surg. 1973;178:514–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 52.
    Davis RA, Kern F Jr. Effects of ethinyl estradiol and bile salt on cholesterol excretion: a possible mechanism for gallbladder disease. Clin Res. 1974;22:356A.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    Nestle PJ, Hirsch EZ, Couzens EA. The effect of chloro-phenylisobutyric acid and ethinyl estradiol on cholesterol turnover. J Clin Invest. 1965;44:891–6.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    Pellecchia D, McCallion M, Ryan JP. Influence of progesterone in vivo on antral and gallbladder motility in vitro. Fed Proc. 1981;40:577A.Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    Ryan JP, Bhojwani A, Wang MB. Effects of pregnancy on gastric motility in vivo and in vitro in the guinea pig. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 56.
    Everson GT, McKinley C, Lawson M, et al. Gallbladder function in the human female: effects of the ovulatory cycle, pregnancy and contraceptive steroids. Gastroenterology. 1982;82:711–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Braverman DZ, Johnson ML, Kern F Jr. Effects of pregnancy and contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function. N Engl J Med. 1980;302:362–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 58.
    Rodberg G, Asztely M, Cantor P, et al. Gastric and gallbladder emptying in relation to the secretion of cholecystokinin after a meal in late pregnancy. Digestion. 1989;42:174–80.Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    Rodberg G, Friman S, Svanvik J. The influence of pregnancy and contraceptive steroids on the biliary tract and its reference to cholesterol gallstone formation. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989;25:97–102.Google Scholar
  59. 60.
    Rodberg G, Svanvik J. Influence of pregnancy, oophorectomy and contraceptive steroids on gallbladder concentrating function and hepatic bile flow in the cat. Gut. 1986;27:10–4.Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    Kern F, Everson GT, DeMark B, et al. Biliary lipids, bile acids, and gallbladder function in the human female: effects of contraceptive steroids. J Lab Clin Med. 1982;99:798–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    Layde PM, Vessay MP, Yeates D. Risk factors for gallbladder disease: a cohort study of young women attending family planning clinics. J Epidemol Community Health. 1982;36:274–8.Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    Ramcharan S, Pellegrin FA, Ray R, Hsu JP. The Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study, Vol. III. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1981. NIH Publication No. 81-564.Google Scholar
  63. 64.
    Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraceptive Study. Oral contraceptives and gallbladder disease. Lancet. 1982;36:274–8.Google Scholar
  64. 65.
    Strom BL, Tamragouri RN, Morse ML, et al. Oral contraceptives and other risk factors for gallbladder disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986;39:335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    Turrill FL, McCarron N, Mikkelsen WP. Gallstones and diabetes: an ominous association. Am J Surg. 1961;102:184–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    Tucker LE, Tansedahl TN, Newmark SR. Prevalence of gallstones is obese Caucasian American women. Int J Obes. 1982;6:247–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    Coyle JJ, Hoyt DB, Sedeghat A. Relationship of intestinal bypass operations and cholelithiasis. Surg Forum. 1980;31:139–41.Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    Jordan RA. Cholelithiasis in sickle-cell disease. Gastroenterology. 1957;33:952–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Phillips JC, Gerald PE. The incidence of cholelithiasis in sickle-cell disease. Am J Roentgenol. 1971;113:27–8.Google Scholar
  70. 71.
    Bates GA, Brown CH. Incidence of gallbladder disease in chronic hemolytic anemia (spherocytosis). Gastroenterology. 1952;21:104–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    Ihasz M, Griffith CA. Gallstones after vagotomy. Am J Surg. 1981;141:48–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Ahlberg J, Angelin B, Einarsson K, et al. Biliary lipid composition in normo- and hyperlipoproteinemia. Gastroenterology. 1980;79:90–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 74.
    Roy CC, Weber AM, Morin CL, et al. Abnormal biliary lipid composition in cystic fibrosis: effect of pancreatic enzymes. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:1301–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 75.
    Baum JK, Bookstein JJ, Holtz F, et al. Possible association between benign hepatomas and oral contraceptives. Lancet. 1973;2:926–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    Amerikas JA, Thompson NW, Frey CF, et al. Hepatic cell adenoma, spontaneous liver rupture and oral contraceptives. Arch Surg. 1975;110:548–57.Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benson B. Liver cell adenoma associated with the use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976;294:470–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 78.
    Stauffer JQ, Hill RB. Systemic contraceptives and liver tumors. Ann Intern Med. 1976;85:122–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Nissen ED, Kent DR, Nissen SE. Role of oral contraceptives in the pathogenesis of liver tumors. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1979;5:231–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 80.
    Greer T. Hepatic adenoma and oral contraceptive use. J Fam Pract. 1989;28:322–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Scott LD, Katz AR, Duke JH, et al. Oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver. JAMA. 1984;251:1461–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Fitz JG. Oral contraceptives and benign tumors of the liver. West J Med. 1984;140:260–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 83.
    Prentice RL, Thomas DB. Epidemiology of oral contraceptives and disease. Adv Cancer Res. 1987;49:285–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Rooks JB, Ory HW, Ishak KG, et al. Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma. The role of oral contraceptive use. JAMA. 1979;242:644–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Wavri WN. Primary neoplasm of the liver. Arch Pathol. 1944;37:367–76.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    Adams YG, Huros AG, Fortner JG. Giant hemangiomas of the liver. Ann Surg. 1970;172:239–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 87.
    Huggins GR, Zucker PK. Oral contraceptives and neoplasia: 1987 update. Fertil Steril. 1987;47:733–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Jick H, Herman R. Oral contraceptive induced benign liver tumors—the magnitude of the problem. JAMA. 1978;240:828–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 89.
    Klatsin G. Hepatic tumors: possible relationship to use of oral contraceptives. Gastroenterology. 1977;73:386–94.Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    Sorensen TI, Baden H. Benign hepatocellular tumors. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975;10:113–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Salvo AF, Schiller A, Athanasoulis C, et al. Hepatoadenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: pitfalls in radiocolloid imaging. Radiology. 1977;125:451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 92.
    Kerlin D, Davis GL, McGill DB, et al. Hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia. Clinical pathology and radiologic features. Gastroenterology. 1983;84:994–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Knowles DM, Casarella WJ, Johnson PM, et al. The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characterizations of benign hepatic neoplasms. Medicine. 1978;57:223–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 94.
    Welch TJ, Sheedy PT, II, Johnson CM, et al. Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma: comparison of angiography, CT, US, and scintigraphy. Radiology. 1985;156:543–57.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    Mathieu D, Bruneton JN, Drouillard J, et al. Hepatic adenomas and focal nodular hyperplasia: dynamic CT study. Radiology. 1986;160:53–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Consensus Conference. Magnetic resonance imaging. JAMA. 1988;259:2132–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Stark DD, Felder RC, Wittenberg J. Magnetic resonance imaging of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver: tissue specific characterizations. Am J Radiol. 1986;145:213–22.Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Ishak KG, Rabin L. Benign tumors of the liver. Med Clin North Am. 1975;59:995–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Tesluk H, Lawrie J. Hepatocellular adenoma: its transformation to carcinoma in a user of oral contraceptives. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1981;105:296–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    Gordon SE, Reddy KR, Livingstone AS, et al. Resolution of a contraceptive—steroid-induced hepatic adenoma with subsequent evolution into hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105:547–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 101.
    Davis M, Postmann B, Searle M, et al. Histologic evidence of carcinoma in a hepatic tumor associated with oral contraceptives. Br Med J. 1975;180:14–9.Google Scholar
  101. 102.
    Neuberger J, Nunnerly HB, David M, et al. Oral contraceptive associated liver tumors: occurrence of malignancy and difficulties in diagnosis. Lancet. 1980;1:273–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Edmondson HA, Reynolds TB, Henderson B, et al. Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Intern Med. 1977;86:180–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Sherlock S. Progress report: hepatic reactions to drugs. Gut. 1979;20:634–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 105.
    Mariani A, Livingstone AS, Pereiras RV, et al. Progressive enlargement of an hepatic cell adenoma. Gastroenterology. 1979;77:1319–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 106.
    Marks WH, Thompson N, Applemann H. Failure of hepatic adenomas (HCA) to regress after discontinuance of oral contraceptives. An association with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and uterine leiomyoma. Ann Surg. 1988;208:190–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 107.
    Buhler H, Pirovino M, Akovbiantz A. Regression of liver cell adenoma. A follow-up study of three consecutive patients after discontinuation of oral contraceptive use. Gastroenterology. 1982;82:775–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Weinmann MD, Chopra S. Tumors of the liver other than primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1987;16:627–50.Google Scholar
  108. 109.
    David M, Portmann B, Searle M, et al. Histologic evidence of carcinoma in a hepatic tumor associated with oral contraceptives. Br Med J. 1975;4:496–8.Google Scholar
  109. 110.
    Glassberg AB, Rosenbaum EG. Oral contraceptives and malignant hepatoma. Lancet. 1976;1:479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 111.
    Pryor AC, Cohen RJ, Goldman RL. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a woman on long-term oral contraceptives. Cancer. 1977;40:884–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 112.
    Ham JM, Stevenson D, Liddlelow AG. Hepatocellular carcinoma possibly induced by oral contraceptives. Am J Dig Dis. 1978;23:38s-40s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 113.
    Vana J, Murphy GP. Primary malignant liver tumors: association with oral contraceptives. NY State J Med. 1979;79:321–5.Google Scholar
  113. 114.
    Shar SR, Kew MC. Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 1982;49:407–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 115.
    Cote RJ, Urmacher C. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the liver associated with long-term oral contraceptive use. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14:784–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 116.
    Silverberg E, Buring CC, Squires TS. Cancer statistics, 1990. Cancer. 1990;40:9–26.Google Scholar
  116. 117.
    Henderson BE, Preston-Martin S, Edmondson HA, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma and oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer. 1983;48:437–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 118.
    Forman D, Vincent TJ, Doll R. Cancer of the liver and use of oral contraceptives. Br Med J. 1986;292:1357–61.Google Scholar
  118. 119.
    Neuberger J, Forman D, Doll R, et al. Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma. Br Med J. 1986;292:1355–7.Google Scholar
  119. 120.
    Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, et al. Oral contraceptive use and liver cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;130:878–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 121.
    Forma D, Doll R, Peto R. Trends in mortality from carcinoma of the liver and the use of oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer. 1983;48:349–54.Google Scholar
  121. 122.
    Goodman ZD, Ishak KG. Hepatocellular carcinoma in women: probable lack of etiologic association with oral contraceptive steroids. Hepatology. 1982;2:440–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 123.
    Porter LE, Elm MS, Dugas MC. Characterization and quantitiation of human hepatic estrogen receptor. Gastroenterology. 1983;81:704–12.Google Scholar
  123. 124.
    Porter LE, Elm MS, Van Thiel DH, et al. Hepatic estrogen receptor in human liver disease. Gastroenterology. 1987;92:735–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 125.
    Gyorffy EJ, Bredfeldt JE, Black WC. Transformation of hepatic cell adenoma to hepatocellular carcinoma due to oral contraceptive use. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:489–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 126.
    Meade TW, Chakarabarti R, Haines AP, et al. Haemostatis, lipid and blood-pressure profiles of women on oral contraceptives containing 50µg or 30µg estrogen. Lancet. 1977;2:948–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 127.
    Kelly TM. Systemic effects of oral contraceptives. West J Med. 1989;141:113–6.Google Scholar
  127. 128.
    Carvalho ACA, Vaillancourt RA, Cabral RB, et al. Coagulation abnormalities in women taking oral contraceptives. JAMA. 1977;237:875–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 129.
    Ecker JA, Mekittrick JE, Failing RM. Thrombosis of the hepatic veins: the “Budd-Chiari syndrome” — a possible link between oral contraceptives and thrombosis formation. Am J Gastroenterol. 1966;45:429–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 130.
    Langer B, Stone RM, Colapinto RF, et al. Clinical spectrum of the Budd-Chiari syndrome and its surgical management. Am J Surg. 1975;129:137–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 131.
    Wu SM, Sprung OM, Klotz AP. Budd-Chiari syndrome after taking oral contraceptives. Am J Dig Dis. 1977;22:623–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 132.
    Tavill AS, Wood EJ, Kreel, et al. The Budd-Chiari syndrome: correlation between hepatic scintigraphy and the clinical, radiological and pathological findings in nineteen cases. Gastroenterology. 1975;68:509–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 133.
    Powell-Jackson PR, Melin W, Canalese J, et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome: clinical patterns and therapy. Q J Med. 1982;51:79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 134.
    Baert AL, Fevery J, Marchal G, et al. Early diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome by computed tomography and ultrasonography: report of five cases. Gastroenterology. 1983;84:587–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 135.
    Alpert LI. Veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Case report and review of the literature. Hum Pathol. 1976;7:709–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 136.
    Orloff MJ, Johansen KH. Treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome by side-to-side portacaval shunt: experimental and clinical results. Ann Surg. 1978;188:494–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 137.
    Mitchell MC, Boitnott JK, Kaufman S, et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome. Etiology, diagnosis and management. Medicine. 1982;61:199–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 138.
    Malt RA, Dalton JC, Johnson RE, Gurewich V. Side-to-side portacaval shunt versus nonsurgical treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Am J Surg. 1978;136:387–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 139.
    Lewis JH, Tice HL, Zimmerman HJ. Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with oral contraceptive steroids: review of treatment of 47 cases. Dig Dis Sci. 1983;28:673–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 140.
    Knapp WA, Ruebner BH. Hepatomas and oral contraceptives. Lancet. 1974;1:270–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 141.
    Ishak KG. Hepatic lesions caused by anabolic and contraceptive steroids. Semin Liver Dis. 1981;1:116–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 142.
    van Erpecum KJ, Kreuning J, Ruiter DJ, et al. Generalized peliosis hepatis and cirrhosis after long-term use of oral contraceptives. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988;83:572–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 143.
    Nadell J, Kosek J. Peliosis hepatis. Twelve cases associated with oral androgen therapy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1977;101:405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 144.
    Winkler K, Poulson H. Liver disease with periportal sinusoidal dilatation. A possible complication to contraceptive steroids. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975;10:699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 145.
    Camilleri M, Schafler K, Chadwick VA, et al. Periportal sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory bowel disease, and the contraceptive pill. Gastroenterology. 1981;80:810–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 146.
    Zafrani ES, Pinaudeau Y, LeCudonnee B, et al. Focal hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver: a clinicopathological entity possibly related to oral contraceptives. Gastroenterology. 1980;79:1295–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 147.
    Jacobs MB. Hepatic infarction related to oral contraceptive use. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:642–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 148.
    Decherney AH. The use of birth control pills in women with medical disorders. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1981;24:965–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 149.
    Berk PD, Wolkoff AW, Berlin NI. Inborn errors of biliary metabolism. Med Clin North Am. 1975;59:803–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 150.
    Minuk GY, Shaffer EA. Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. Evidence for an intrinsic abnormality in hepatocyte secretion. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:1187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 151.
    Putterman C, Keidar S, Brook JG. Benign recurrent cholestasis — intrahepatic cholestasis — 25 years of follow-up. Postgrad Med J. 1987;63:295–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Lindberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Alabama School of Medicine—Tuscaloosa ProgramTuscaloosa

Personalised recommendations