Bulletin Volcanologique

, 39:91 | Cite as

Forecast of volcanic eruptions by chemical methods

  • I. Iwasaki
  • T. Ozawa
  • M. Yoshida
  • M. Kamada


From the magmatic emanations differentiation point of view it is possible to calculate some ratios such as F/CO2, Cl/CO2, SO2/CO2, SO2/H2S, H2S/CO2 and CO2/N2 in the tumarolic gases for the forecasting of volcanic activity. In order to predict the cruptions of a volcano it is needed to select several fumaroles or hot springs having different regimes of variation of the above ratios. The study of some fumaroles composition at the Asama. Mihara, Kirishima and other volcanoes in Japan showed a close connection between volcanic gas compositions and state of the volcanoes.


Volcanic Activity Volcanic Eruption Volcanic Product Volcanic Emanation Eruption Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Iwasaki, L., 1944–1945,Model experiments on geyser. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,65, 640 pp., 731 pp., 735 pp.;66, 41 pp.Google Scholar
  2. -----, 1948,«Chemistry of Volcanoes» Google Scholar
  3. -----,So-called small spouting and small eruption before eruption. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,70, 283 pp.Google Scholar
  4. —————, 1950,Distribution of radon in hot springs. Chem. Researches,8, p. 1–42.Google Scholar
  5. —————, 1951,Geochemical at studies on Volcano Oshima, Izu, Japan. Chigaku Zasshi (J Geography),60, p. 140–143.Google Scholar
  6. —————, 1962,Geochemical investigation of geysers in Japan. Bull. Tokyo Inst. Tech., Vol. 46, p. 1–59.Google Scholar
  7. -----, 1965a,Differentiation of magmatic emanation and properties of hot springs. News of Geochem. Soc. Japan,No. 32, p. 10–13.Google Scholar
  8. —————, 1965b, Differentiation of magmatic emanations and volcanic emanations. Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan,10, pp. 238–245.Google Scholar
  9. -----, 1967,Chemical properties of volcanic gases from Matsukawa geothermal area. Chemtsu (Geothermy),No. 17, p. 38–51.Google Scholar
  10. —————, 1968–1969,Distribution of radium-226 in hot springs and mechanism of formation of radioactive springs. J. Soc. Eng. Mineral Spring, Japan,6, p. 18–28, p. 112–114, p. 165–168;7, p. 16–24, p. 109–114.Google Scholar
  11. -----, 1970.« Kazan Kagaku » (Chemical Volcanology) (Magmatic emanation and volcanic emanation).Google Scholar
  12. —————, 1971.Chemical surveillance and prediction of volcanic activity. In «Surveillance and Prediction of Volcanic Activity ». Ed. by UNESCO, p. 131–137 (UNESCO, Paris).Google Scholar
  13. ————— andSakato, N., 1955,Volatile components in volcanic rocks. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,76, p. 778–781.Google Scholar
  14. —————,—————, andKamada, M., 1956,Radioactivity of volcanic gases in Japan. Bull. Volcanologique,18, p. 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. -----, -----,Tarutani, T., Ozawa, T., Yoshida, M., Iwasaki, B., Hirayama, M., and Kamada, M., 1963,Geochemical studies on Tamagawa Hot Spring. In« Geochemistry of Tamagawa Hot Springs », Ed. by E. Minami, p. 7–72.Google Scholar
  16. —————, andKaisura, T., 1956,Residual magmatic waters in cavities of trachyandesitic basalt in Imari district, Saga Preformance, Japan. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan,29, p. 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —————, andOzawa, T., 1960,Genetics of sulfate in acid hot springs. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan,33, p. 1018–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. —————,—————, andYoshida, M., 1966b, Differentiation of volcanic emanation around the boiling point of water in geothermal regions in Japan. Bull. Volcanologique,29, p. 517–528.Google Scholar
  19. Iwasaki, I., Ozawa, T., Yoshida, M., Katsura, T., Iwasaki, B., andKamada, M., 1962,Chemical composition of volcanic gases in Japan. Bull. Volcanologique,24, p. 23–48.Google Scholar
  20. —————,—————,—————,—————,—————,—————, 1963.Nature of volcanic gases and volcanic eruption. Bull. Volcanologique,26, p. 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. —————,—————,—————,—————,—————,—————, 1964a, Differentiation of magmatic emanations (Abstract). Bull. Volcanologique,27, p. 79–80.Google Scholar
  22. -----,-----,-----,-----,-----,-----, 1996a,Differentiation of magmatic emanations. Bull. Tokyo Inst. Tech.,No. 74, p. 1–57.Google Scholar
  23. -----,-----,-----,-----,-----,-----, andHirayama, M., 1962,Volcanic gases in Japan. Bull. Tokyo Inst. Tech.,No. 47, p. 1–54.Google Scholar
  24. —————,—————,—————,—————, andKamada, M., 1965,Chemical analysis of volcanic gases. Bull. Volcanologique,28, p. 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. —————, 1964b, Model experiments on the formation of volcanic sublimates from magmatic emanation. Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan, II,9, p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  26. Kamada, M., 1965,Hot springs. Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan, II,10, p. 214–220.Google Scholar
  27. —————, 1961,Distribution of radioactive components in fumarolic gases from one volcanic region. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,82, p. 1342–1345.Google Scholar
  28. —————, 1961,Distribution of radioactive components in fumarolic gases from one fumarole group. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,82, p. 1337–1342.Google Scholar
  29. —————, 1961,Studies on the source of radioactive components in fumarolic gas. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,82, p. 1000–1005.Google Scholar
  30. Kayama, I., Murozumi, M., Okura, T., Ossaka, J., andUzumasa, Y., 1963,Volcanic Sublimates and Volcanic activities. Bull. Volcanologique,26, p. 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mimatsu, M., 1959,« Memoirs on the Genesis of Svowa-Sinzan Volcano ».Google Scholar
  32. Minakami, T., 1950.On explosive activities of andesitic volcanoes and their forerunning phenomena. Bull. Volcanologique,10, p. 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. —————, 1959, Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan, II,4, p. 194.Google Scholar
  34. —————, andYagi, K., 1951,The 1944 eruption of volcano Usu in Hokkaido, Japan. Bull. Volcanologique,11, p. 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mizutani, Y., 1962,Chemical analysis of volcanic gases. J. Earth. Sci. Nagoya Univ.,10, p. 125–134.Google Scholar
  36. —————, 1966,An apparatus for sampling of volcanic gases. Japan Analyst,15, p. 509–511.Google Scholar
  37. Noguchi, K., 1941,Geochemical investigation of geysers in Japan. J. Balneol. Soc. Japan,1, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  38. —————, 1940, J. Chem. Soc. Japan,62, p. 718–723.Google Scholar
  39. —————, 1963,Prediction of volcanic eruption by measuring the chemical composition and amounts of gases. Bull. Volcanologique,26, p. 367–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. —————,—————, 1970,Measurement of gases emitted from volcano Mihara by using an automatic recording instrument. Proc. Japan Acad.,46, (No. 1), p. 83–88.Google Scholar
  41. Ossaka, J., 1965,Volcanic sublimates. Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan, II,10, p. 205–213.Google Scholar
  42. Ozawa, T., 1965,Volcanic gases. Bull. Volcanolog. Soc. Japan, II,10, p. 221–232.Google Scholar
  43. —————, 1966,Chemical analysis of volcanic gases. J. Chem. Soc. Japan,87, p. 848–855, p. 959–962.Google Scholar
  44. —————, 1968,Chemical analysis of volcanic gases. Japan Analyst,17, p. 395–408.Google Scholar
  45. Uzumasa, Y., andMurozumi, M., 1955, J. Chem. Soc. Japan,76, 844 pp., 848 pp. 852 pp.Google Scholar
  46. -----, -----, 1956, J. Chem. Soc. Japan,77, 267 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Yoshida, M., 1963,The volatilization of chlorine and fluorine compounds from igneous rocks on heating. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan,36, p. 773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. —————, andIwasaki, I., 1965,The fractionation of halogen compounds through the process of the volatilization and the sublimation from volcanic rocks on heating. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan,38, p. 1436–1443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Iwasaki
    • 1
  • T. Ozawa
    • 2
  • M. Yoshida
    • 2
  • M. Kamada
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceToho UniversityJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyJapan

Personalised recommendations