Advertisement

Abandoned shallow mineworkings in chalk: A review of the geological aspects leading to their destabilisation

  • G. J. Smith
  • M. S. Rosenbaum
Article

Abstract

The geology of the English chalk and its behaviour as a material are considered in relation to abandoned shallow mineworkings. The geological, structural and morphological apsects of a mine site have been identified to be strong influences on its stability performance. Creep and crack propagation are identified as being important processes leading to deterioration. Postulated interactions of the mined opening with the surrounding rock mass are discussed in terms of scale, intact rock material properties, rock fabric, mine geometry and land-use at ground surface. It is concluded that assessment of mine stability requires a consideration of each of these mechanisms influencing chalk deterioration.

Keywords

Excavation Chalk Creep Deformation Rock Fabric Intact Rock 

Travaux miniers superficiels abandonnés dans la craie: Examen des caractéristiques géologiques conduisant à leur déstabilisation

Résumé

Cet article examine les caractéristiques géologiques et le comportement de la craie en Angleterre vis à vis de travaux miniers superficiels abandonnés. Les aspects géologiques, structuraux et morphologiques d'un site minier ont une influence prépondérante sur sa stabilité, et en particulier la propagation des glissements et des fissures. Les interactions entre la fouille et la masse rocheuse environnante sont discutées, en tenant compte de l'effet d'échelle, des propriétés de la roche intacte, de la texture de la roche, de la géométrie de la fouille et de l'utilisation de la surface du sol. Il en découle que l'évaluation de la stabilité d'une mine nécessite de prendre en compte chacun des mécanismes qui influencent la détérioration de la craie.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AMIRSOLEYMANI T., 1988: Design of tunnels with minimum tangential stresses. Mineworkings' 88, p. 125–131.Google Scholar
  2. BARRON K., 1971: Brittle fracture initiation and ultimate failure of rocks, Part 1. Isotropic rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 8, p. 541–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BELL F.G., CRIPPS J.C., EDMONDS C.N. & CULSHAW M.G., 1990: Chalk fabric and its relation to certain geotechnical properties. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 187–194.Google Scholar
  4. BROWN E.T., 1985: From theory to practice in rock engineering. Tunnelling '85, Published by The Institution of Mining and Metallury, p. IX–XXIV.Google Scholar
  5. CLAYTON C.R.I., 1990: The mechanical properties of chalk. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium. Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 213–232.Google Scholar
  6. DOWNING R.A. & HEADWORTH H.G., 1990: The hydrogeology of the chalk in the UK: the evolution of our understanding. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 555–570.Google Scholar
  7. DRAGON A. & MROZ Z., 1979: A model for plastic creep of rock-like material accounting for the mechanics of fracture. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 16, p. 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DUVALL W.I. 1976. General principles of underground opening design in competent rock. Proceedings of the 17th Rock Mechanics Symposium held at Snowbird, Utah, August 25–27 1976. Pre-print Published by The University of Utah, p. 101–111.Google Scholar
  9. EDMONDS C.N., GREEN C.P. & HIGGINBOTTOM I.E., 1990: Review of underground mines in the English chalk: form, origin, distribution and engineering significance. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 511–519.Google Scholar
  10. FARMER I., 1983: engineering behaviour of rocks. Published by Chaplan & Hall, 208 pp.Google Scholar
  11. GALLOIS R., 1990: Overviews, field logging and mechanical properties. Session Charman's Summary. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium. Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 11–13.Google Scholar
  12. GRAMBERG J., 1970: The “ellipse with notch theory” to explain axial cleavage fracture. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 7, p. 537–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. GUY D.G., 1990: Classification and assessment of chalk on the M25 around the Gade Valley, Kings Langley, Hertfordshire. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 441–448.Google Scholar
  14. HANCOCK J.M., 1975: The petrology of the Chalk. Proceedings of the Geologists Association, vol. 86 Pt. (4), p. 499–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. HIGGINBOTTOM I.E., 1990: Engineering behaviour of chalk. A British historical perspective. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 5–10.Google Scholar
  16. HUDSON J.A., 1987: The understanding of measured changes in rock structure, in-situ stress and water flow caused by under-ground excavation. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Kobe University, Japan, 6–9 April 1987. Published by Balkema, Rotterdam, vol. 2, p. 605–612.Google Scholar
  17. JONES D.K.C., 1981: Southeast and southern England (In Series—The Geomorphology of the British Isles). Published by Methuen & Co. Ltd., London, 332 pp.Google Scholar
  18. JONES M.E., 1990: Hydrocarbon production from the North Sea: geotechnical considerations. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 641–647.Google Scholar
  19. KENNEDY W.J. & GARRISON R.E., 1975: Morphology and genesis of nodular chalks and hardgrounds in the Upper Cretaceous of southern England. Sedimentology, vol. 22, p. 311–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. LAKE L.M., 1980: Underground excavations in chalk. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 461–467.Google Scholar
  21. MIMRAN Y., 1975: Fabric deformation induced in Cretaceous chalks by tectonic stresses. Tectonophysics, vol. 26, p. 309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MIMRAN Y. & MICHAELI L., 1990: Structurally controlled microfabric modification in chalk and its rock mechanic implications. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 203.Google Scholar
  23. MORTIMORE R.N., READING P. & SMITH N., 1990: Overcoring the SPT in Flinty Chalk: the influence of lithology and fracturing on the SPT and Mundford Grades at Bury St. Edmonds, Suffolk, England. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 277–283.Google Scholar
  24. MORTIMORE R.N., & FIELDING P.M., 1990: The relationship between texture, density and strength of chalk. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 109–125.Google Scholar
  25. MUIR WOOD, A.M., 1979: Ground behaviour and support for mining and tunnelling. Tunnelling '79, Published by The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, p. XI–XXII.Google Scholar
  26. PATERSON L., 1988: Serrated fracture growth with branching. Key Questions in Rock Mechanics, Cundall et al. (eds.), Published by Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 351–359.Google Scholar
  27. POWELL J.J.M., MARSLAND A., LONGWORTH T.I. & BUTCHER A.P., 1990: Engineering properties of Middle Chalk encountered in investigations for roads near Luton, Bedfordshire. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989, Published by Thomas Telford. London, p. 327–341.Google Scholar
  28. PRICE D.G., 1990: The collapse of the Heidegroeve: a case history of subsidence over abandoned mineworkings in Cretaceous calcarenites. Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989, Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 221–227.Google Scholar
  29. PRICE D.G. & BEKENDAM R.F., 1991: The stability assessment of the calcarenite mines in southern Limburg. Section Report, Delft University of Technology.Google Scholar
  30. PRICE N.J. & COSGROVE J.W., 1990: Analysis of geological structures. Published by Cambridge University Press, 502 pp.Google Scholar
  31. ROSENBAUM M.S., 1989: Geological influence on tunnelling under the Western Front at Vimy Ridge. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol. 100 Pt. (1), p. 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. SMITH G.J. & ROSENBAUM M.S.: Recent underground investigations of abdandoned chalk mine workings beneath Norwich City, Norfolk. In Press.Google Scholar
  33. SPINK T.W. & NORBURY D.R., 1990: The engineering geological description of chalk: Chalk: Proceedings of the International Chalk Symposium, Brighton Polytechnic, 4–7 September 1989. Published by Thomas Telford, London, p. 153–159.Google Scholar
  34. WARD W.H., BURLAND J.B. & GALLOIS R.W., 1968: Geotechnical assessment of a site at Mundford, Norfolk, for a large proton accelerator. Geotechnique, vol. 18, p. 339–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. WAVERSIK W.R. & FAIRHURST C., 1970: A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 7, p. 561–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. WHITTAKER B.N., & FRITH R.C., 1990: Tunnelling—Design, stability and construction. Published by The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 460 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association of Engineering Geology 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. Smith
  • M. S. Rosenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Engineering Geology Research Group, Department of GeologyImperial CollegeLondon

Personalised recommendations