Science and Engineering Ethics

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 417–426 | Cite as

Reaching for the “low hanging fruit”

The pressure for results in scientific research—A graduate student’s perspective
  • Tyson R. BrowningEmail author
Educational Forum


The pressure for results applied by some research funders concerns some academicians. Sometimes, for example, a sponsor requests preliminary data that the researcher is not ready to release. This paper presents three interviews — two with researchers and one with a representative from industry — dealing with these issues and makes recommendations on the basis of those interviews. It also looks briefly at the different norms that exist in industry and academia for research and communication and the tensions these can cause for a scientist working simultaneously in both realms.


applied research industrial sponsor pressure research contract responsibility 


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Notes and references

  1. 1.
    Jankowski, J.E. Jr. (1992)National Patterns of R&D Resources, National Science Foundation, NSF 92-330, Washington, D.C., pp. 33–34.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinberg, Alvin M. (1965) Scientific Choice, Basic Science, and Applied Missions, inBasic Research and National Goals, A Report to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, by the National Academy of Sciences, p. 280.Google Scholar
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    Bush, Vannevar, ed. (1945)Science—The Endless Frontier, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, D.C. (reprinted July, 1960 by NSF), p. xxvi.Google Scholar
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    Hamburg, David (1994) Constructive Responses to the Changing Social Context of University-Government Relations, In: Guston D. and Keniston K., eds.The Fragile Contract: University Science and the Federal Government, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 228–229.Google Scholar
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    Skolnikoff, Eugene B. and Brooks, Harvey (1975) Science Advice in the White House? Continuation of a Debate,Science 187:38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Opragen Publications 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technology and Policy Program and Department of Aeronautics and AstronauticsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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