Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 375–383 | Cite as

Ecological determinants of the behavior and social structure of Japanese monkeys: A synthesis

  • Naofumi Nakagawa
Article

Abstract

A review is presented of the results of the various studies in this volume and an attempt is made to establish connections among several features of the ecology, behavior, and social structure of Japanese monkeys. Several studies in this volume suggest that intergroup direct feeding competition has been much more severe in Yakushima, in the warm-temperate region, than in Kinkazan, in the cool-temperate region of Japan. This result is consistent with the predictions that moderate abundance and clumped distribution of food incur more severe intergroup direct competition. However, the number of adult females within a group in Yakushima was smaller than that in Kinkazan even though severe intergroup direct competition should favor large groups. This contradiction can be mainly explained by the less severe intergroup indirect competition in Kinkazan than in Yakushima. By contrast, some studies in this volume also indicate that adult male to female ratio within a group has been higher in Yakushima than in Kinkazan. This result can be explained in two ways: the females in Yakushima might have recruited more males to increase the competitive ability of the group under conditions of severe intergroup direct feeding competition; alternatively, it might be profitable that the males in Yakushima defend females cooperatively as group males against the males in other groups at a moderate density of females. Some studies in this volume suggest that grooming frequency was higher in Yakushima than in Kinkazan. The higher grooming frequency in Yakushima might have been partly due to a constant increase in engaging in social behavior from a decrease in feeding time. Another reason might be that there is a stronger effect of grooming on promotion of formation of coalitions among adults under conditions of severe intergroup direct and intragroup direct competition.

Key Words

Group size Feeding competition Mating competition Affiliative behavior Japanese monkeys 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agetsuma, N.;Nakagawa, N. 1998. Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan.Primates, 39: 275–289.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. 1990. Primate males go where the females are.Anim. Behav., 39: 193–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andelman, S. 1986. Ecological and social determinants of cercopithecine mating patterns. In:Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution,Rubenstein,D. I.;Wrangham,R. W. (eds.), Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, pp. 201–216.Google Scholar
  4. Barton, R. A.;Byrne, R. W.;Whiten, W. 1996. Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 38: 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boccia, M.L.;Laudenslager, M.;Reite, M. 1988. Food distribution, dominance, and aggressive behaviors in Bonnet macaques.Amer. J. Primatol., 16: 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caldecott, J. O. 1986. Mating patterns, societies and the ecogeography of macaques.Anim. Behav., 34: 208–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, C. 1988. Patch use and patch depletion by the spider and howling monkeys of Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.Behaviour, 105: 99–116.Google Scholar
  8. Chapman, C. 1990. Ecological constraints on group size in three species of neotropical primates.Folia Primatol., 55: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapman, C.;Wrangham, R. W.;Chapman, L. J. 1995. Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkeys and chimpanzee subgroups.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 36: 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheney, D. L.;Seyfarth, R. M. 1987. The influence of inter-group competition on the survival and reproduction of female vervet monkeys.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 21: 375–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunbar, R. I. M. 1988.Primate Social Systems. Coom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  12. Hill, D. A. 1994. Affiliative behaviour between adult males of the genusmacaca.Behaviour, 130: 293–308.Google Scholar
  13. Isabirye-Basuta, G. 1988. Food competition among individuals in a free-ranging chimpanzee community in Kibale Forest, Uganda.Behaviour, 105: 135–147.Google Scholar
  14. Isbell, L. A. 1991. Contest and scramble competition: patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates.Behav. Ecol., 2: 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Izawa, K. 1983. The ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys living in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Prefecture: a preliminary report.Bull. Miyagi Univ. Educ., 18: 24–46. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  16. Izawa, K. 1988. The ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys living in Kinkazan Island, Miyagi Prefecture: on the population change and the group division.Bull. Miyagi Univ. Educ., 23: 1–9 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Izawa, K. 1995. Saru no saishoku ga shokubutsu ni ataeru eikyo (The influence of feeding by the monkeys on the plants).Miyagiken no Nihonzaru, 8: 1–12. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Janson, C. H. 1988. Food competition in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): quantitative effects of group size and tree productivity.Behaviour, 105: 53–75.Google Scholar
  19. Janson, C. H.;van Schaik, C. P. 1988. Recognizing the many faces of primate food competition: methods.Behaviour, 105: 165–186.Google Scholar
  20. Kinnaird, M. F. 1992. Variable resource defense by the Tana river crested mangabey.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 31: 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar, A. 1995. Birth rate and survival in relation to group size in the lion-tailed macaque,Macaca silenus.Primates, 36: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maruhashi, T.;Saito, C.;Agetsuma, N. 1998. Home range structure and inter-group competition for land of Japanese macaques in evergreen and deciduous forests.Primates, 39: 291–301.Google Scholar
  23. Mitani, J. C.;Gros-Louis, J.;Manson, J. H. 1996. Numbers of males in primate groups: comparative tests of competing hypotheses.Amer. J. Primatol., 38: 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mitchell, C. L.;Boinski, S.;Schaik, C. P. 1991. Competitive regimes and female bonding in two species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi andS. sciureus).Behav Ecol. Sociobiol., 28: 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nakagawa, N. 1989. Feeding strategies of Japanese monkeys against the deterioration of habitat quality.Primates, 30: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nakagawa, N. 1990. Decisions on time allocation to different food patches by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).Primates, 31: 459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakagawa, N. 1994.Various View-points of Feeding Ecology on Japanese Monkeys. Heibonsha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. O'Brien, T. 1991. Female-male social interactions in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys: benefits and costs of group living.Anim Behav., 41: 555–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ostfeld, R. S. 1985. Limiting resources and territoriality in microtine rodents.Amer. Naturalist, 126: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ostfeld, R. S. 1990. The ecology of territoriality in small mammals.Trends Ecol. Evol., 5: 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Overdroff, D. J. 1996. Ecological correlates to social structure in two lemur species in Madagascar.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 100: 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ridley, M. 1986. The number of males in a primate troop.Anim. Behav., 34: 1848–1858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robinson, J. G. 1988. Group size in wedge-capped monkeysCebus olivaceus and the reproductive success of males and females.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 23: 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saito, C. 1996. Dominance and feeding success in female Japanese macaques,Macaca fuscata: effect of food patch size and inter-patch distance.Anim. Behav., 51: 967–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saito, C.;Sato, S.;Suzuki, S.;Sugiura, H.;Agetsuma, N.;Takahata, Y.;Sasaki, C.;Takahashi, H.;Tanaka, T.;Yamagiwa, J. 1998. Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).Primates, 39: 303–312.Google Scholar
  36. van Schaik, C. P. 1983. Why are diurnal primates living in groups?Behaviour, 87: 120–144.Google Scholar
  37. van Schaik, C. P.;van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. 1983. On the ultimate causes of primate social systems.Behaviour, 85: 91–173.Google Scholar
  38. van Schaik, C. P.;Horstermann, M. 1994. Predation risk and the number of adult males in a primate group: a comparative test.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 35: 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. van Schaik, C. P.;van Noordwijk, M. A.;de Boer, R. J.;den Tonkelaar, I. 1983a. The effect of group size on time budgets and social behaviour in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 13: 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. van Schaik, C. P.;van Noordwijk, M. A.;Warsono, B.;Sutrino, E. 1983b. Party size and early detection of predators in Sumatran forest primates.Primates, 24: 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sprague, D. S.;Suzuki, S.;Takahashi, H.;Sato, S. 1998. Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats.Primates, 39: 351–363.Google Scholar
  42. Stacey, P. 1986. Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 18: 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stephens, D. W.;Krebs, J. R. 1986.Foraging Theory. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  44. Suzuki, S. 1996. Male life history and social structure of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. Ph. D. diss, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto.Google Scholar
  45. Suzuki, S.;Noma, N.;Izawa, N. 1998. Inter-annual variation of reproductive parameters and fruit availability in two populations of Japanese macaques.Primates, 39: 313–324.Google Scholar
  46. Takahashi, H.;Furuichi, T. 1998. Comparative study of grooming relationships among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan A troop and Yakushima M Troop.Primates, 39: 365–374.Google Scholar
  47. Takahata, Y.;Sprague, D.;Suzuki, S.;Okayasu, N. 1994a. Female competition, co-existence, and the mating structure of wild Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island, Japan. In:Animal Societies: Individuals, Interactions and Organization,Jarman,P. J.;Rosstter,A. (eds.), Kyoto Univ. Press, Kyoto, pp. 163–179.Google Scholar
  48. Takahata, Y.;Suzuki, S.;Agetsuma, N.;Okayasu, N.;Sugiura, H.;Takahashi, H.;Yamagiwa, J.;Izawa, K.;Furuichi, T.;Hill, D.A.;Maruhashi, T.;Saito, C.;Sato, S.;Sprague, D. S. 1998a. Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan Islands: a preliminary report.Primates, 39: 339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Takahata, Y.;Suzuki, S.;Okayasu, N.;Hill, D. 1994b. Troop extinction and fusion in wild Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island, Japan.Amer. J. Primatol., 33: 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Takahata, Y.;Suzuki, S.;Okayasu, N.;Sugiura, H.;Takahashi, H.;Yamagiwa, J.;Izawa, K.;Agetsuma, N.;Hill, D.;Saito, C.;Sato, S., Tanaka, T.;Sprague, D. 1998b. Does troop size of wild Japanese macaques influence birth rate and infant mortality in the absence of predators?Primates, 39: 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takasaki, H. 1981. Troop size, habitat quality, and home range area in Japanese macaque.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 9: 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Takasaki, H.;Masui, K. 1984. Troop composition data of wild Japanese macaques reviewed by multivariate methods.Primates, 25: 308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. White, F. J.;Wrangham, R. W. 1988. Feeding competition and patch size in the chimpanzee speciesPan paniscus andPan troglodytes.Behaviour, 105: 148–163.Google Scholar
  54. Whitten, P. L. 1983. Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).Amer. J. Primatol., 5: 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Whitten, P. L. 1988. Effects of patch quality and feeding sub-group size on feeding success in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).Behaviour 105: 35–52.Google Scholar
  56. Wrangham, R. W. 1980. An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups.Behaviour, 75: 262–299.Google Scholar
  57. Wrangham, R. W.;Gittleman, J. L.;Chapman, C. A. 1993. Constraints on group size in primates and carnivores: population density and day-range as assays of exploitation competition.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 32: 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naofumi Nakagawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nursing, Faculty of NursingKobe City College of NursingKobe, HyogoJapan

Personalised recommendations