Primates

, 39:1 | Cite as

Flexibility in the species-typical songs of gibbons

  • Maury M. Haraway
  • Ernest G. Maples
Article

Abstract

Flexibility, or a capacity for situational variation, is an important characteristic of gibbon vocalization—one which may be seen as necessary to the functional effectiveness of species-typical songs. This paper reviews literature reporting flexibility of gibbon vocal behavior in relation to reinforcement contingencies, the singing of neighboring gibbons, development of pair coordination in the duet-singing of siamang gibbons, sequential progression in the elaboration of organizing sequences in siamang gibbons, and “repairs” of organizing and great-call sequences. A theoretical framework to account for the development of flexibility in species-typical behaviors is drawn on the basis ofGlickman's andSchiff's (1967) proposal of the reinforcing power of species-typical behaviors and associated feedback and consequent stimuli.

Key Words

Gibbons Reinforcement Species-typical behavior Variability Vocal behavior 

References

  1. Aldrich-Blake, F. P. G.;Chivers, D. J. 1973. On the genesis of a siamang group.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 38: 631–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amsel, A.;Roussel, J. 1952. Motivational properties of frustration: I. Effect on a running response of the addition of frustration to the motivational complex.J. Exp. Psychol., 43: 363–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brockelman, W. Y. 1984. Social behavior of gibbons: introduction. In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology,Preushoft,H.;Chivers,D. J.;Brockelman,W. Y.;Creel,N. (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, pp. 285–290.Google Scholar
  4. Brockelman, W. Y.;Ross, B. A.;Pantuwatana, S. 1974. Social interactions of adult gibbons (Hylobates lar) in an experimental colony. In:Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 3 Rumbaugh, D. (ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 137–156.Google Scholar
  5. Butler, R. A. 1953. Discrimination learning by rhesus monkeys to visual-exploration motivation.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 46: 95–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Butler, R. A.;Harlow, H. F. 1954. Persistence of visual exploration motivation.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 47: 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butler, R. A.;Wollpy, J. H. 1963. Visual attention in the rhesus monkey.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 56: 324–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter, C. R. 1940. A field study of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar).Comp. Psychol. Monogr., 16: 1–212.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, R. M.;Levy, N. 1957. Hunger drive and reinforcing effect on novel stimuli.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 47: 257–263.Google Scholar
  10. Chivers, D. J. 1974.Contributions to Primatology, 4: The Siamang in Malaya: A Field Study of a Primate in Tropical Rain Forest, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  11. Chivers, D. J. 1977. The lesser apes. In:Primate Conservation,Prince Ranier,H. S. H.;Bourne,G. H. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 539–598.Google Scholar
  12. Chivers, D. J.;MacKinnon, J. P. 1977. On the behavior of siamang after playback of their calls.Primates, 18: 943–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crespi, L. P. 1944. Amount of reinforcement and level of performance.Psychol. Rev., 51: 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ellefson, J. O. 1968. Territorial behavior in the common white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). In:Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability,Jay,P. (ed.), Holt, New York, pp. 180–199.Google Scholar
  15. Ellefson, J. O. 1974. A natural history of white-handed gibbons in the Malayan peninsula. In:Gibbon and Siamang, Vol. 3.Rumbaugh, D. (ed.) Karger, Basel, pp. 1–136.Google Scholar
  16. Geissmann T. 1986. Mate change enhances duetting activity in the siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus).Behaviour, 96: 17–27.Google Scholar
  17. Gittens, S. P. 1978. Hark, the beautiful song of the gibbon.New Scientist, 80: 832–834.Google Scholar
  18. Glickman, S.;Schiff, B. 1967. A biological theory of reinforcement.Psychol. Rev., 74: 81–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haimoff, E. H. 1981. Video analysis of siamang songs.Behaviour, 76: 128–151.Google Scholar
  20. Haimoff, E. H. 1984. Acoustic and organizational features of gibbon songs. In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology,Preuscott,H.;Chivers,D. J.;Brockelman,W. J.;Creel,N. (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, pp. 333–353.Google Scholar
  21. Haimoff, E. H. 1988. The organization of repair in the songs of gibbons.Semiotica, 68: 89–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haimoff, E. H.;Gittens, S. P. 1985. Individuality in the songs of wild agile gibbons, (Hylobates agilis) of peninsular Malaysia.Amer. J. Primatol., 8: 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haimoff, E. H.;Tilson, R. L. 1985. Individuality in the female songs of wild Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossi) on Siberut Island Indonesia.Folia Primatol., 44: 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haraway, M. M.;Maples, E.G. 1989. Motivational variations in the singing behavior of a siamang pair.Int. J. Comp. Psychol., 2(4): 257–264.Google Scholar
  25. Haraway, M. M.; Maples, E. G. in press. Gibbons: the singing apes. In:Handbook of Comparative Psychology,Greenberg, G.; Haraway, M. M. (eds.), Garland, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Haraway, M. M.;Maples, E. G.;Tolson, J. S. 1981. Taped vocalization as a reinforcer of vocal behavior of a siamang gibbon (Symphalangus syndactylus)Psychol. Rep., 49: 995–999.Google Scholar
  27. Haraway, M. M.;Maples, E. G.;Tolson, J. S. 1988. Responsiveness of a male Mueller's gibbon to his own species-song, that of alar gibbon, and a synthetic song of similar frequency.Zoo Biol., 7: 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hill, W. F. 1956. Activity as an autonomous drive.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 49: 15–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoffman, H. S.;Searle, J. L.;Toffey, S.;Kozma, F. 1966. Behavioral control by an imprinted stimulus.J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 9: 177–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hull, C. L. 1943.Principles of Behavior, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Humphreys, A. P.;Einon, D. F. 1981. Play as a reinforcer for maze learning in juvenile rats.Anim. Behav., 29: 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kagan, J.;Berkun, M. 1954. The reward value of running activity.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 47: 108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kappeler, M. 1984. Vocal bouts and territorial maintenance in the moloch gibbon. In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology,Preuschoft,H.;Chivers,D. J.;Brockelman,W. Y.;Creel,N. (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh pp. 376–389.Google Scholar
  34. Kavanau, J. L. 1966. Wheel running preference of mice.Zeit. Tierpsychol., 23: 858–866.Google Scholar
  35. King, J. Q.;Weisman, R. G. 1964. Sand digging contingent upon bar pressing and deermice (Peromyscus).Anim. Behav., 12: 446–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maples, E. G.;Haraway, M. M. 1982. Taped vocalization as a reinforcer of vocal behavior in a female agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis).Psychol. Rep., 51: 1–18.Google Scholar
  37. Maples, E. G.;Haraway, M. M.;Collie, L. 1988. Interactive singing of a male Mueller's gibbon with a stimulated neighbor.Zoo Biol., 7:115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maples, E. G.;Haraway M. M.;Hutto, C. W. 1989. Development of coordinated singing in a newly formed siamang pair.Zoo Biol., 8: 367–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marler, P. 1965. Communication in monkeys and apes. In:Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes,Devore,T. (ed.), Holt, New York, pp. 544–584.Google Scholar
  40. Marler, P.;Hamilton, W. J., III. 1966.Mechanisms of Animal Behavior. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Marler, P.;Tenaza, R. 1977. Signaling behavior of apes, with special reference to vocalizations. In:How Animals Communicate,Sebeok,T.A. (ed.), Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, pp. 965–1033.Google Scholar
  42. Marshall, J.;Marshall, E. 1976a. Gibbons and their territorial songs.Science, 193: 235–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marshall, J.;Marshall, E. 1976b.The Gibbons: Songs of All Species Recorded in Their Natural Forest Habitat. ARA Records, Gainsvelle, Florida.Google Scholar
  44. Marshall, J.;Sugardjito, J. 1986. Gibbon systematics. In:Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution, and Anatomy, Vol. 1,Swindler,D.;Erwin,J. (eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 137–185.Google Scholar
  45. Melvin, K. B. 1985. Attack display as a reinforcer inBetta splendens.,Bull. Psychomet. Society, 23: 350–352.Google Scholar
  46. Mitani, J. 1984. The behavioral regulation of monogamy in gibbons.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 15: 225–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mitani, J. C. 1985. Gibbon song duets and intergroup spacing.Behaviour, 92: 59–96.Google Scholar
  48. Mitani, J. C. 1987. Responses of gibbons (Hylobates muelleri) to self, neighbor, and stranger song duets.Int. J. Primatol., 6: 193–200.Google Scholar
  49. Mitani, J. C.;Marler, P. 1989. A phonological analysis of male gibbon singing behavior.Behavior, 109: 20–45.Google Scholar
  50. Montgomery, K. C. 1954. The role of exploratory drive in learning.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 47: 60–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Montgomery, K. C.;Segall, M. 1955. Discrimination learning based upon the exploratory drive.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 48: 225–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mote, F. A.;Finger, F. W. 1942. Exploratory drive and secondary reinforcement in the acquisition and extinction of a simple running response.J. Exp. Psychol., 31: 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nissen, H. W. 1930. A study of exploratory behavior in the white rat by means of the obstruction method.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 37: 361–376.Google Scholar
  54. Panksepp, J.;Siviy, S.;Normansell, L. 1984 The psychology of play: theoretical and methodological perspectives.Neurosci Biobehav. Rev., 8: 465–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Raemaekers, J. J.;Raemaekers, P. M. 1984. Vocal interaction between two male gibbons (Hylobates lar).Nat. Hist. Bull. Siamang Society, 32: 95–106.Google Scholar
  56. Raemaekers, J. J.;Raemaekers, P. M. 1985. Field playback of loud calls to gibbons (Hylobates lar): territorial, sex specific, and species-specific responses.Anim. Behav., 33: 481–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schneider, G. E.;Gross C. G. 1965. Curiosity in the hamster.,J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 59: 150–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stevenson, J. G. 1967. Reinforcing effects of chaffinch song.Anim. Behav., 15: 427–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sevenster, P. 1968. Motivation and learning in sticklebacks. In:The Central Nervous System and Fish Behavior,Ingle,P. (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 233–245.Google Scholar
  60. Tenaza, R. R. 1976. Songs, choruses, and countersinging of Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in Siberut Island, Indonesia.Zeit. Tierpsychol., 40: 37–52.Google Scholar
  61. Thompson, T. I. 1963. Visual reinforcement in Siamese fighting fish.Science 141: 55–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Thompson, T. I. 1964. Visual reinforcement in fighting cocksJ. Exp. Anal. Behav., 7: 45–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Whitten, A. J. 1982. The ecology of singing in Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) on Siberut Island, Indonesia.Int. J. Primatol., 3: 33–51.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maury M. Haraway
    • 1
  • Ernest G. Maples
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Education, Psychology DepartmentNortheast Louisiana UniversityMonroeUSA

Personalised recommendations