Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 383–392 | Cite as

Allelic variation of the dopamine receptor D4 gene polymorphic region in gibbons

  • Miho Inoue-Murayama
  • Youko Niimi
  • Osamu Takenaka
  • Yuichi Murayama
Article

Abstract

We examined the tandem repeat sequence of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in 73 individuals derived from 8 species of gibbons (genusHylobates) in an attempt to assess the variability of this gene in gibbon species.H. syndactylus (subgenusSymphalangus) andH. concolor (subgenusNomascus), which were inferred to have diverged at an early time within the family Hylobatidae, shared only long repeat (7–8) alleles. On the other hand, DRD4 was highly polymorphic in gibbons of the subgenusHylobates, with 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-repeat alleles being recognized. In this subgenus, 4- and 5-repeat alleles were found in the species distributed mainly in the southern islands such as Sumatra, Java, and Borneo but not in the species inhabiting the Asian continent. Sequence analysis indicated that the repeat structure of the gibbon DRD4 gene was quite complex but most of the 48-bp units could be classified into several groups across the species based on sequence similarities. However, the sequence of the 7-repeat allele ofH. muelleri was unique, since the repeat units had low similarities to other units of gibbons.

Key Words

Neurotransmitters Gibbon Evolution Classification Geographical distribution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benjamin, J.;Li, L.;Patterson, C.;Greenberg, B. D.;Murphy, D. L.;Hamer, D. H. 1996. Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking.Nature Genet., 12: 81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dulawa, S. C.;Grandy, D. K.;Low, M. J.;Paulus, M. P.;Geyer, M. A. 1999. Dopamine D4 receptor-knock-out mice exhibit reduced exploration of novel stimuli.J. Neurosci., 19: 9550–9556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ebstein, R. P.;Novick, O.;Umansky, R.;Priel, B.;Osher, Y.;Blaine, D.;Bennett, E. R.;Nemanov, L.;Katz, M.;Belmaker, R. H. 1996. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking.Nature Genet., 12: 78–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap.Evolution, 39: 783–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fleagle, J. G. 1988.Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  6. Garza, J. C.;Woodruff, D. S. 1992. A phylogenetic study of the gibbons (Hylobates) using DNA obtained noninvasively from hair.Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 1:202–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Groves, C. P. 1989.A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Haimoff, E. H.;Gittins, S. P.;Whitten, A. J.;Chivers, D. J. 1984. A phylogeny and classification of gibbons based on morphology and ethology. In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology,Preushoht,H.;Chivers,D. J.;Brockelman,W. Y.;Creel,N. (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, pp. 614–632.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, L. M.;Jones, D. S.;Wood, B. A. 1998. Evolution of the gibbon subgenera inferred from cytochromeb DNA sequence data.Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 10: 281–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayashi, S.;Hayasaka, K.;Takenaka, O.;Horai, S. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of gibbons inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: preliminary report.J. Mol. Evol., 41: 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Inoue-Murayama, M.;Takenaka, O.;Murayama, Y. 1998. Origin and divergence of tandem repeats of primate D4 dopamine receptor genes.Primates, 39: 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Livak, K. J.;Rogers, J.;Lichter, J. B. 1995. Variability of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene sequence within and among nonhuman primate species.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92: 427–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marshall, J.;Sugardjito, J. 1986. Gibbon systematics. In:Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy,Swindler,D. (ed.), AR Liss, New York, pp. 137–185.Google Scholar
  14. Matsumoto, M.;Hidaka, K.;Tada, S.;Tasaki, Y.;Yamaguchi, T. 1995. Polymorphic tandem repeats in dopamine D4 receptor are spread over primate species.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 207: 467–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Napier, J. R.;Napier, P. H. 1985.The Natural History of the Primates. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  16. Saitou, N.;Nei, M. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.Mol. Biol. Evol., 4: 406–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Shafer, D. A.;Myers, R. H.;Saltzman, D. 1984. Biogenetics of the siabon (gibbon-siamang hybrids). In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology,Preushoht,H.;Chivers,D. J.;Brockelman,W. Y.;Creel,N. (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, pp. 486–497.Google Scholar
  18. Shilai, M. A. 1997. Probe on the Chinese origin of gibbons (Hylobates).Acta Theriologica Sinica, 17: 13–23.Google Scholar
  19. Thompson, J. D.;Higgins, D. G.;Gibson, T. J. 1994. CLUSTALW.Nucleic Acids Res., 22: 4673–4680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Van Tol, H. H. M.;Wu, C. M.;Guan, H. C.;Ohara, K.;Bunzow, J. R.;Civelli, O.;Kennedy, J.;Seeman, P.;Niznik, H. B.;Jovanovic, V. 1992. Multiple dopamine D4 receptor variants in the human population.Nature, 358: 149–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhang, Y. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution and phylogenetic relationships of gibbons.Acta Genetica Sinica, 24: 231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miho Inoue-Murayama
    • 1
  • Youko Niimi
    • 1
  • Osamu Takenaka
    • 1
  • Yuichi Murayama
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Diversity and Resources, Faculty of AgricultureGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of Animal HealthTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations