Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 20–26 | Cite as

Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis

  • M. D. Grynpas
  • B. Alpert
  • I. Katz
  • I. Lieberman
  • K. P. H. Pritzker
Clinical Investigations

Summary

To determine whether subchondral bone in osteoarthritis differs from that seen in normal human aging, osteoarthritic femoral heads removed for total hip arthroplasty were compared with normal age-matched and young autopsy controls. Standardized, 1-cm deep, weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing subchondral bone blocks, as well as cancellous core bone, 2–4 cm deep to the articular surface, were examined in each femoral head. Mineralization was assessed using density fractionation and chemical analysis, and compared to histomorphometry. In osteoarthritis, both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing surface subchondral bone showed a lower degree of mineralization than age-matched and young controls. Histomorphometric analysis showed that subchondral bone thickness, as well as all osteoid parameters and eroded surfaces, were increased in osteoarthritic samples versus controls. Mineralization in the deep cancellous core bone increased with normal aging but underwent less change with osteoarthritis. Histomorphometry of the cancellous core showed that osteoid parameters, but not bone volume, were increased in osteoarthritis versus controls. In conclusion, osteoarthritis is associated with a thickening of the subchondral bone with an abnormally low mineralization pattern.

Key words

Bone Mineralization Osteoarthritis Histomorphometry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Howell DS, Sapolsky AI, Pita JC (1982) The pathogenesis of degenerative joint disease. In: Current concepts. Scope Publication, New York, pp 5–28Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bland JH (1983) The reversibility of osteoarthritis: a review. Am J Med Aspirin Symposium: 16–26Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Radin EL, Paul IL, Tolkoff MJ (1970) Subchondral bone changes in patients with early degenerative joint disease Arthritis Rheum 12:400–405Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Radin EL, Paul IL (1970) Does cartilage compliance reduce skeletal impact loads? Arthritis Rheum 13:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ewald FC, Poss R, Pugh J, Schiller AL, Sledge CB (1982) Hip cartilage supported by methacrylate in canine arthroplasy. Clin Orthop 171:273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reimann I, Mankin HK, Trahan C (1977) Quantitative histologic analysis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone from osteoarthritic and normal human hips. Acta Orthop Scand 48:63–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cameron HU, Fornasier VL (1979) Fine detail radiography of the femoral head in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 6(2):178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reimann I, Christensen SB (1979) A histochemical study of alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in subchondral bone from osteoarthritic human hips. Clin Orthop 140:85–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Batra HC, Charnley J (1969) Existence and incidence of osteoid in osteoarthritic femoral heads. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 51B(2):366–371Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Christensen P, Kjaer J, Melsen F, Nielsen HE, Sneppen O, Vang P (1982) The subchondral bone of the proximal tibial epiphysis in osteoarthrosis of the knee. Acta Orthop Scand 53:889–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sokoloff L (1969) The biology of degenerative joint disease. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mayor MB, Moskowitz RW (1974) Metabolic studies in experimentally induced degenerative joint disease in the rabbit. J Rheumatol 1:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Collins DH (1949) The pathology of articular and spinal diseases. Jarrold and Sons, Ltd, Norwich, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parfitt AM, Drezner ML, Glorieuz FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR (1987) Bone morphometry: standardization of nomenclature symbols, and unit. J Bone Min Res 2:595–610Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amprino R, Engstrom A (1952) Studies on 4-RN absorption and diffraction of bone tissue. Acta Anat 15:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grynpas MD, Patterson-Allen P, Simmons DJ (1986) The changes in quality of mandibular bone mineral in otherwise totally immobilized rhesus monkeys. Calcif Tissue Int 39: 57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barnes TM (1984) Determination of trace elements of biological materials by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy with novel chelating resins. Biol Trace Elements 6:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods, 6th ed. State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp 120–134, 299–338Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grynpas MD, Hunter GK (1988) Bone mineral and glycosaminoglycans in newborn and mature rabbits. J Bone Miner Res 3:159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bonar LC, Rougosse AH, Sabine WK, Grynpas MD, Glimcher MJ (1983) X-ray diffraction studies of the crystallinity of bone mineral in newly synthesized and density fractionated bone. Calcif Tissue Int 35:202–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fazzalari NL, Daracott J, Vernon-Roberts B (1983) A quantitative description of selected stress regions of cancellous bone in the head of the femur using automatic image analysis. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 5:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ascenzi A, Bonucci E (1967) The tensile properties of single osteons. Anat Res 158:375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simkin A, Robin GC (1974) Fracture formation in differing collagen fiber pattern of the upper end of the femur as an index of osteoporosis. J Biomech 7:183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wall JC, Chatterji SK, Jeffrey JW (1978) The influence that bone density and the orientation and particle of the mineral phase have on the mechanical properties of bone. J Bienerg Biomembr 2:517Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mellish RWE, Garrahan NJ, Compston JE (1989) Age-related changes in trabecular width and spacing in human iliac crest biopsies. Bone Miner 6:331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Birkenhager-Frenkel DH, Courpron P, Hupscher EA, Clermonts E, Coutinho MF, Schmitz PIM, Meunier PJ (1988) Agerelated changes in cancellous bone structure. A twodimensional study in the transiliac and iliac crest biopsy sites. Bone Miner 4:197–216PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Grynpas
    • 2
    • 1
  • B. Alpert
    • 2
    • 1
  • I. Katz
    • 2
    • 1
  • I. Lieberman
    • 2
    • 1
  • K. P. H. Pritzker
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Toronto and Mount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PathologyMount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations