Advertisement

Sexuality and Disability

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 53–79 | Cite as

Pharmacology of erection: Agents which initiate and terminate erection

  • Karl-Erik Andersson
Article

Key Words

impotence pharmacology penile erection priapism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Krane RJ, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I: Impotence. N Engl J Med 321:1648–1659, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steers WD: Neural control of penile erection. Sem Urol 8:66–79, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lue TF: Physiology of erection and pathophysiology of impotence.In Campbell's Urology, ed. by P.C. Walsh, A.B. Retik, T.A. Stamey, E.D. Vaughan Jr, 6th ed., W.B. Saunders Company, pp 709–728, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersson K-E. Holmquist F: Mechanisms for contraction and relaxation of human penile smooth muscle. Int J Impotence Res 2:209–225, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saenz de Tejada I: Mechanisms for the regulation of penile smooth muscle contractility.In World Book of Impotence, ed. by T.F. Lue, Smith-Gordon and Company Limited, London, pp 39–48, 1992.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foreman MM, Wernicke JF: Approaches for the development of oral drug therapies for erectile dysfunction. Sem Urol 8:107–112, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Virag R: Intracavernous injection of papaverine for erectile failure. Lancet ii:938, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jünemann K-P, Alken P: Pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction: a review. Int J Impotence Res 1:71–93, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gregoire A: New treatments for erectile impotence. Br J Psychiat 160:315–326, 1992.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jünemann K-P: Pharmacotherapy of impotence: were are we going:In World Book of Impotence, ed. by T.F. Lue, Smith-Gordon and Company Limited, London, pp 181–188, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldstein, I: Comment on ‘Pharmacotherapy of impotence’.In World Book of Impotence, ed. by T.F. Lue, Smith-Gordon and Company Limited, London, pp 194–197, 1992.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    van Driel MF, van de Wiel HBM, Weymar Schultz WCM, Mensink HJ: The history of papaverine in erectile dysfunction. Int J Impotence Res 4:59–63, 1992.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferrari M: Effects of papaverine on smooth muscle and their mechanisms. Pharmacol Res Commun 6:97–115, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Virag R, Shoukry K, Floresco J, Nollet F, Greco E: Intracavernous self-injection of vasoactive drugs in the treatment of impotence: 8-year experience with 615 cases. J Urol 145: 287–293, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pöch G, Kukovetz WR: Papaverine-induced inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity in various mammalian tissues. Life Sci 10:133–144, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brading AF, Burdygat THV, Scipnyuk ZD: The effects of papaverine on the electrical and mechanical activity of the guinea-pig ureter. J Physiol (Lond) 334:79–89, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huddart H, Langton PD, Saad KHM: Inhibition of papaverine of calcium movements and tension in the smooth muscle of rat vas deferens and urinary bladder. J Physiol 349:189–194, 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sunagane N, Ogawa T, Uruno T, Kubota K: Mechanism of relaxant action of papaverine. VI. Sodium ion dependence of its effects on 45Ca-efflux in guinea-pig taenia coli. Jpn J Pharmacol 38:133–139, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krall JF, Fittingoff M, Rajfer J: Characterization of cyclic nucleotide and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive calcium-exchange activity of smooth muscle cells cultured from the human corpora cavernosa. Biol Reprod 39:913–922, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang Q, Large WA. Modulation of noradrenaline-induced membrane currents by papaverine in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells. J Physiol (Lond) 439:501–512, 1991.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kirkeby H-J, Forman A, Andersson K-E: Comparison of the papaverine effects on isolated human penile circumflex veins and corpus cavernosum. Int J Impotence Res 2:49–54, 1990.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jünemann K-P, Lue TF, Fournier Jr GR, Tanagho EA: Hemodynamics of papaverine- and phentolamine-induced penile erection. J Urol 136:158–161, 1986.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delcour C, Wespes E, Vandenbosch G, Schulman CC, Struyven J: The effect of papaverine on arterial and venous hemodynamics of erection. J Urol 138:187–189, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Diederichs W, Stief CG, Lue TF, Tanagho EA: Sympathetic inhibition of papaverine induced erection. J Urol 146:195–198, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim SC, Oh MM: Norepinephrine involvement in response to intracorporeal injection of papaverine in psychogenic impotence. J Urol 147:1530–1532, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hashmat AI, Abrahams J, Fani K, Nostrand I: A lethal complication of papaverine-induced priapism. J Urol 145:146–147, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seidmon EJ, Samaha Jr AM: The pH analysis of papaverine-phentolamine and prostaglandin E1 for pharmacological erection. J Urol 141:1458–1459, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stackl W: Comment on ‘Pharmacotherapy of impotence’,In World Book of Impotence, ed. by T.F. Lue, Smith-Gordon and Company Limited, London, p 189, 1992.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lomas GM, Jarow JP: Risk factors for papaverine-induced priapism. J Urol 147: 1280–1281. 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hakenberg O, Wetterauer U, Koppermann U, Lühmann R: Systemic pharmacokinetics of papaverine and phentolamine: comparison of intravenous and intracavernous application. Int J Impotence Res 2(Supplement 2): 247–248, 1990.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tanaka T: Papaverine hydrochloride in peripheral blood and the degree of penile erection. J Urol 143:1135–1137, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hedlund H, Andersson K-E: Comparison of the responses to drugs acting on adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in human isolated corpus cavernosum and cavernous artery. J Auton Pharmacol 5:81–88, 1985a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kimura K, Kawanishi Y, Tamura M, Imagawa A: Assessment of the alpha-adrenergic receptors in isolated human and canine corpus cavernosum tissue. Int J Impotence Res 1:185–189, 1989.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saenz de Tejada I, Kim N, Lagan I, Krane RJ, Goldstein I: Regulation of adrenergic activity in penile corpus cavernosum. J Urol 142:1117–1121, 1989b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Christ GJ, Maayani S, Valcic M, Melman A: Pharmacological studies of human erectile tissue: characteristics of spontaneous contractions and alterations in α-adrenoceptor responsiveness with age and disease in isolated tissues. Br J Pharmacol 101:375–381, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kirkeby HJ, Forman A, Sørensen S, Andersson K-E: Alpha-adrenoceptor function in isolated penile circumflex veins from potent and impotent men. J Urol 142:1369–1371, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fontaine J, Schulman CC, Wespes E: Postjunctional alpha-1 and alpha-2-like activity in human isolated deep dorsal vein of the penis. Br J Pharmacol 89:493, 1987.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brindley GS: Cavernosal alpha-blockade: a new technique for investigating and treating erectile impotence. Br J Psychiat 143:332–447, 1983.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brindley GS: Pilot experiments on the actions of drugs injected into the human corpus cavernosum penis. Br J Pharmacol 87:495–500, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Blum MD, Bahnson RR, Porter TN, Carter MF: Effect of local alpha-adrenergic blockade on human penile erection. J Urol 134:479–481, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buvat J, Lemaire A, Buvat-Herbaut M, Marcolin G: Safety of intracavernous injections using an alpha-blocking agent. J Urol 141:1364–1367, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brindley GS: A new treatment for priapism. Lancet ii:220–221, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    de Meyer JM, De Sy WA: Intracavernous injection of noradrenaline to interrupt erections during surgical interventions. Eur Urol 12:169–170, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Taylor S, Sutherland G, MacKenzie GJ, Staunton HP, Donald KW: The circulatory effect of intravenous phentolamine. Circulation 31:741–754, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wespes E, Rondeux C, Schulman CC: Effect of phentolamine on venous return in human erection. Br J Urol 63:95–97, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Imhof PR, Garnier B, Brunner L, Keller G, Rihrer T: Human pharmacology of orally administered phentolamine.In Phentolamine in Heart Failure and Other Cardiac Disorders. Proceedings of an International Workshop. London, November 1975. Ed SH Taylor, LA Gould, Hans Huber Publishers 1975, pp 11–22.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zorgniotti AW, Lefleur RS: Auto-injection of the corpus cavernosum with a vasoactive drug combination for vasculogenic impotence. J Urol 133:39–41, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerstenberg TC, Metz P, Ottesen B, Fahrenkrug J: Intracavernous self-injection with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and phentolamine in the management of erectile failure. J Urol 147:1277–1279, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gwinup G: Oral phentolamine in non-specific erectile insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 109: 162–163, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    ZorgniottiAW: “On demand” erection with oral preparations for impotence: 3-(N-(2-imidazoline-2ylmethyl)-p-toluidinol) phenol mesylate. Int J Impotence Res 4(Supplement 2): A99, 1992.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stackl W, Loupal G, Holzmann A: Intracavernous injection of vasoactive drugs in the rabbit. Urol Res 16:455–458, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Flind AC: Cavernosal alpha-blockade: a warning. Br J Psychiatr 144:329–330, 1984.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Imagawa A, Kimura K, Kawanishi Y, Tamura M: Effect of moxisylyte hydrochloride on isolated human penile corpus cavernosum tissue. Life Sci 44:619–623, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Buvat J, Buvat-Herbaut M, Lemaire A, Marcolin G: Reduced rate of fibrotic nodules in the cavernous bodies following auto-intracavernous injections of moxisylyte compared to papaverine. Int J Impotence Res. 3:123–128, 1991.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Georgotas A, Forsell TL, Mann JJ, Kim M, Gershon S: Trazodone hydrochloride: a wide spectrum antidepressant with a unique pharmacological profile. A review of its neurochemical effects, pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and toxicology. Pharmacotherapy 2:255–267, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berendsen HHG, Jenck F, Broekkamp CLE. Involvement of 5-HT1C-receptors in drug-induced penile erection in rats. Psychopharmacol 101:57–61, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Steers WD, de Groat WC: Effects of m-clorophenylpiperazine on penile and bladder function in rats. Am J Physiol 257:R1441-R1449, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blanco R, Azadzoi KM: Characterization of trazodone-associated priapism. J Urol 136:203A, 1987.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Saenz de Tejada I, Ware JC, Blanco R, Pittard JT, Nadig PW, Azadzoi KM, Krane RJ, Goldstein I: Pathophysiology of prolonged penile erection associated with trazodone use. J Urol 145:60–64, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lal S, Rios O, ThavundayilJX: Treatment of impotence with trazodone: a case report. J Urol 143:819–820, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Azadzoi KM, Payton T, Krane RJ, Goldstein I: Effects of intracavernosal trazodone hydrochloride: animal and human studies. J Urol 144:1277–1282, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sikora R, Sohn M, Bosshardt R, Jakse G: Trazodone in diagnosis and therapy of erectile dysfunction: preliminary results. Int J Impotence Res 4(Supplement2):A100, 1992.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Roy AC, Tan SM, Kottegoda SR, Ratnam SS: Ability of human corpora cavernosa muscle to generate prostaglandins and thromboxanes in vitro. IRCS Med Sci 12:608–609, 1984.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bornman MS, Franz RC, Jacobs DJ, Du Plessis DJ: Thromboxane B2 production during erection. Andrologia 18:220–223, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jeremy JY, Morgan RJ, Mikhailidis DP, Dandona P: Prostacyclin synthesis by the corpora cavernosa of the human penis: evidence for muscarinic control and pathological implications. Prostagl Leukotr Med 23:211–216, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Roy AC, Adaikan PG, Sen DK, Ratnam SS: Prostaglandin 15-hydroxydehydrogenase activity in human penile corpora cavernosa and its significance in prostaglandin-mediated penile erection. Br J Urol 64:180–182, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hedlund H, Andersson K-E: Contraction and relaxation induced by some prostanoids in isolated human penile erectile tissue and cavernous artery. J Urol 134:1245–1250, 1985c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hedlund H, Andersson K-E, Fovaeus M, Holmquist F, Uski T: Characterization of contraction-mediating prostanoid receptors in human penile erectile tissues. J Urol 141:182–186, 1989a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hedlund H, Andersson K-E, Holmquist F, Uski T: Effect of thromboxane receptor antagonist AH 23848 on human isolated corpus cavernosum. Int J Impotence Res 1:19–25, 1989b.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Molderings, GJ, van Ahlen H, Göthert M: Modulation of noradrenaline release in human corpus cavernosum by presynaptic prostaglandin receptors. Int J Impotence Res 4:19–26, 1992.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gloub M, Zia P, Mastsuno M: Metabolism of prostaglandins A and E1 in man. J Clin Invest 56:1404–1410, 1975.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ishii N, Watanabe H, Irisawa M: Intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 for the treatment of erectile impotence. J Urol 141:323–325, 1986.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chen J-K, Hwang TIS, Yang C-R: Comparison of effects following the intracorporeal injection of papaverine and prostaglandin E1. Br J Urol 69:404–407, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Porst H: Prostaglandin E1 in male impotence—its diagnostic and therapeutic use in 2000 patients. Int J Impotence Res 4(Supplement)2:A88, 1992.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fahrenkrug, J: VIP and autonomic neurotransmission. Pharmacol Ther 41:515–534 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Willis E, Ottesen B, Wagner G, Sundler F, Fahrenkrug J: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a possible neurotransmitter involved in penile erection. Acta Physiol Scand 113: 545–547, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hedlund H, Andersson K-E: Effects of some peptides on isolated human penile erectile tissue and cavernous artery. Acta Physiol Scand 124:413–419, 1985b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Steers WD, McConnell J, Benson GS: Anatomical localization and some pharmacological effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in human and monkey corpus cavernosum. J Urol 132:1048–1093, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kirkeby HJ, Fahrenkrug J, Holmquist F, Ottesen B: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) in human penile corpus cavernosum tissue and circumflex veins: localization and in vitro effects. Eur J Clin Invest 22:24–30, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Adaikan PG, Kottegoda SR, Ratnam SS: Is vasoactive intestinal polypeptide the principal transmitter involved in human penile erection? J Urol 135:638–640, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jünemann K-P, Lue TF, Huo J-A, Jadallah SI, Tanagho EA: The role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neuro-transmitter in canine penile erection: a combined in vivo and immunohistochemical study. J Urol 138:871–877, 1987.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ottesen B, Wagner G, Virag R, Fahrenkrug J: Penile erection: possible role for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neurotransmitter. Br Med J 288:9–11, 1984.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kiely EA, Blank MA, Bloom SR, Williams G: Studies on intracavernosal VIP levels during pharmacologically induced penile erections. Br J Urol 59:334–339, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gu J, Polak JM, Lazarides M, Morgan R, Pryor JP, Marangos PJ, Blank MA, Bloom SR: Decrease of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the penises from impotent men. Lancet, ii:315–318, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jünemann K-P, Lue Luo J-A, Jadallah SA, Nunes LL, Tanagho EA: The role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neurotransmitter in canine penile erection: a combined in vivo and immunohistochemical study. J Urol 138:871–873, 1987.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Aoki H, Matsuzaka J, Yeh KH, Banya Y, Fuzioka T, Kubo T, Yasuda N: Studies on the role of VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) in penile erectile function. Int J Impotence Res 2(Supplement 2):28–29, 1990.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kiely EA, Bloom SR, Williams G: Penile response to intracavernosal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide alone and in combination with other vasoactive agents. Br J Urol 64:191–194, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roy JB, Petrone RL, Said S: A clinical trial of intracavernous vasoactive intestinal peptide to induced penile erection. J Urol 143:302–304, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wagner G, Gerstenberg T: Vasoactive intestinal peptide facilitates normal erection.In Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial International Synmposium for Corpus Cavernosum Revascularization and the Third Biennial World Meeting on Impotence. Boston, Massachusetts, October 6–9, p 146, 1988.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Palmer JBD, Cuss FM, Warren JB, Blank M, Bloom SR, Barnes PJ: Effect of infused vasoactive intestinal peptide on airway function in normal subjects. Thorax 41:663–666, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Krejs GJ: Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide in man. Ann N Y Acad Sci 527:501–507, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stief CG, Benard F, Bosch RJLH, Aboseif SR, Lue T, Tanagho E: A possible role for calcitonin-gene-related peptide in the regulation of the smooth muscle tone of the bladder and penis. J Urol 143:392–397, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ishida-Yamamoto A, Tohyama M: Calcitonin gene-related peptide in the nervous tissue. Prog Neurobiol 33:335–386, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hughes A. Thom S, Martin G, Sever P: Endothelial dependent relaxation of human arteries by peptide hormones. Clin Sci Suppl 13:88P, 1985.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Crossman D, McEwan J, MacDermot J, MacIntyre I, Dollery CT: Human calcitonin gene-related peptide activates adenylate cyclase and releases prostacyclin from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 92:695–701, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Persson K, Garcia-Pascual A, Andersson K-E: Differences in the actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in pig detrusor and vesical arterial smooth muscle. Acta Physiol Scand, 143:45–53, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Alaranta S, Uusitalo H, Hautamäki AM, Klinge E: Calcitonin gene-related peptide: immunohistochemical localization in, and effects on, the bovine penile artery. Int J Importance Res 3:49–59, 1991.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stief CG, Wetterauer U, Schaebsdau F, Jonas U: Calcitonin-gene-related peptide: A possible role in human penile erection and its therapeutical application in impotent patients. J Urol 146:1010, 1991b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Furchgott RF, Zawadski JV: The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 288:373–376, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Furchgott RF: The role of endothelium in the responses of vascular smooth muscle to drugs. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 24:175–197, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Palmer RMJ, Ferrige AG, Moncada S: Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327:524–526, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ignarro LJ, Buga GM, Wood KS, Byrns RE, Chaudhuri G: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:9265–9269, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Saenz de Tejada I, Goldstein I, Azadzoi K, Krane RJ, Cohen MD: Impaired neurogenic and endothelium-mediated relaxation of penile smooth muscle from diabetic men with impotence. N J Engl Med 320:1025–1030, 1989a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kimoto Y, Kessler R, Constantinou CE: Endothelium dependent relaxation of human corpus cavernosum by bradykinin. J Urol 144:1015–1017, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Holmquist F, Andersson K-E, Hedlund H: NG-nitro-L-arginine inhibits non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation of human isolated corpus cavernosum. Acta Physiol Scand 141:441–442, 1991a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Holmquist F, Andersson K-E, Hedlund H: Characterization of inhibitory neurotransmission in the isolated corpus cavernosum from rabbit and man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 449:295–311, 1992.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kim N, Azadzoi KM, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I: A nitric oxide-like factor mediated nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurogenic relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.J Clin Invest 88:112–118, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pickard RS, Powell PH, Zar MA: The effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide biosynthesis and cyclic GMP formation on nerve-evoked relaxation of human cavernosal smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 104:755–759, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Knispel HH, Goessl C, Beckmann R: Nitric oxide mediates relaxation in rabbit and human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Urol Res 20:253–257, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rajfer J, Aronson WJ, Bush PA, Dorey FJ, Ignarro LJ: Nitric oxide as a mediator of relaxation of the corpus cavernosum on response to nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission. N Engl J Med 326:90–94, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bush PA, Aronson WJ, Buga GM, Rajfer J, Ignarro LJ: Nitric oxide is a potent relaxant of human and rabbit corpus cavernosum. J Urol 147:1650–1655, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Holmquist, F, Stief CG, Jonas U, Andersson K-E: Effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine on the erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation in the rabbit. Acta Physiol. Scand. 143:299–304, 1991b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Burnett AL, Lowenstein CJ, Bredt DS, Chang TSK, Snyder SH: Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediator of penile erection. Science 257:401–403, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Feelisch M: Cellular and non-cellular metabolism of organic nitrates to nitric oxide: involvement of enzymic and non-enzymic pathways. In The Biology of Nitric Oxide. I Physiological and Clinical Aspects. S Moncada, MA Marletta, JB Hibbs Jr, EA Higgs (eds). Portland Press Proceedings, pp 13–17, 1992.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Moncada S, Palmer RMJ, Higgs EA: Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 43:109–142, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Reden J: Molsidomine. Blood Vessels 27:282–294, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wildgrube HJ, Ostrowski J, Chamberlain J, Gärtner W, Stockhausen H: Liver function and pharmacokinetics of molsidomine and its metabolite 3-morpholinosydnonimine in healthy volunteers. Arzneim Forsch (Drug Res) 36:1129–1133, 1986.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Stief CG, Holmquist F, Allhoff EP, Andersson K-E, Jonas U: Preliminary report on the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) donor SIN-1 on human cavernous tissue in vivo. World J Urol 9: 237–239, 1991a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stief CG, Holmquist F, Djamilian M, Krah H, Andersson K-E, Jonas U: Preliminary results with the nitric oxide donor linsidomine chlorhydrate in the treatment of human erectile dysfunction. J Urol 148:1437–1440, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Heaton JPW: Synthetic nitrovasodilators are effective, in vitro, in relaxing penile tissue from impotent men: the findings and their implications. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 67:78–81, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Talley JD, Crawley IS: Transdermal nitrate, penile erection and spousal headache. Ann Int Med 103:804, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Owen JA, Saunders F, Harris C, Fenemore J, Reid K, Surridge D, Condra M, Morales A: Topical nitroglycerin: a potential treatment for impotence. J Urol 141:546–548, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Claes H, Baert L: Transcutaneous nitroglycerin therapy in the treatment of impotence. Urol Int 44:309–312, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Meyhoff HH, Rosenkilde P, Bødker A: Non-invasive management of impotence with transcutaneous nitroglycerin. Br J Urol 69:88–90, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sønksen J, Biering Sørensen F: Transcutaneous nitroglycerin in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in spinal cord injured. Paraplegia 30:554–557, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Weston AH, Abbott A: New class of antihypertensive acts by opening K+ channels. Trends Pharmacol Sci 8:283–284, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Edwards G, Weston AH: Potassium channel openers and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Pharmacol Ther 48:237–258, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Andersson K-E: Clinical pharmacology of potassium channel openers. Pharmacol Toxicol, 70:244–254, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Longman SD, Hamilton TC: Potassium channel activator drugs: mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, and therapeutic potential. Med Res Rev 12:73–148, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Holmquist F, Andersson K-E, Fovaeus M, Hedlund H: K+-channel openers for relaxation of isolated penile erectile tissue from rabbit. J Urol 144:146–151, 1990a. Holmquist F, Andersson K-E, Hedlund H: Effects of pinacidil on isolated human corpus cavernosum penis. Acta Physiol Scand 138:463–469, 1990b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Giraldi A, Wagner G: Effect of pinacidil upon penile erectile tissue, in vitro and in vivo, Pharmacol Toxicol 67:235–238, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hellstrom WJG, Wang R, Kadowitz PJ, Domer FR: Potassium channel agonists cause penile erection in cats. Int J Impotence Res 4:35–43, 1992.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    McCall JM, Aiken JW, Chidester CG, DuCharme DW, Wendling MG: Pyrimidine and triazine 3-oxide sulfates: a new family of vasodilators. J Med Chem 26:1791–1793, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cavallini G: Minoxidil versus nitroglycerin: a prospective double-blind controlled trial in transcutanous erection facilitation for organic impotence. J Urol 146:50–53, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Clark JT, Smith ER, Davidson JM: Enhancement of sexual motivation in male rats by yohimbine. Science 225:847–848, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Smith ER, Lee RL, Schnur SL, Davidson JM: Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: I. mating behavior. Physiol Behav 41:7–14, 1987a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Smith ER, Lee RL, Schnur SL, Davidson JM: Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: II. erectile and ejaculatory reflexes. Physiol Behav 41:15–19, 1987b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Goldberg MR, Robertson D: Yohimbine: a pharmacological probe for study of the α2 adrenoceptor. Pharmacol Rev 35:143–180, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Danjou P, Alexandre L, Warot D, Lacomblez L, Puech AJ: Assessment of erectogenic properties of apomorphine and yohimbine in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 26:733–739, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Jacobsen FM: Fluoxetin-induced sexual dysfunction and an open trial of yohimbine. J Clin Psychiatry 53:119–122, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Charney DS, Heninger GR: Alpha2-adrenergic and opiate receptor blockade. Arch Gen Psychiatry 43:1037–1041, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Morales A, Condra M, Owen JA, Surridge DH, Fenemore J, Harris C: Is yohimbine effective in the treatment of organic impotence? Results of a controlled trial. J Urol 137:1168–1172, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Reid K, Morales A, Harris C, Surridge DH, Condra M, Owen J: Double-blind trial of yohimbine in treatment of psychogenic impotence. Lancet i:421–423, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Riley AJ, Goodman RE, Kellett JM, Orr R: Double blind trial of yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of erection inadequacy. Sexual and Marital Therapy 4:17–26, 1989.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Susset JG, Tessier CD, Wincze J, Bansal S, Malhotra C, Schwacha MG: Effect of yohimbine hydrochloride on erectile impotence: a double-blind study. J Urol 141:1360–1363, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Turchi P, Canale D, Ducci M, Nannipieri E, Serafini MF, Menchini Fabris GF: The transdermal route in the treatment of male sexual impotence: preliminary data on the use of yohimbine. Int J Impotence Res 4:45–50, 1992.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Owen JA, Nakatsu SL, Fenemore J, Condra M, Surridge DHC, Morales A: The pharmacokinetics of yohimbine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32:577–582, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Galitzky J, Rivière D, Tran MA, Montastruc JL, Berlan M: Pharmacodynamic effects of chronic yohimbine treatment in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 39:447–451, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Charney DS, Heninger GR, Sternberg DE: Assessment of alpha2adrenergic autoregulator function in humans: effects of oral yohimbine. Life Sci 30:2033–2041, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Charney DS, Heninger GR, Redmond Jr DE: Yohimbine induced anxiety and increased noradrenergic fuction in humans: effects of diazepam and clonidine. Life Sci 33:19–29, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Price LH, Charney DS, Heninger GR: Three cases of manic symptoms following yohimbine administration. Am J Psychiatr 141:1267–1268, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Meyerson BJ, Terenius L: Beta-endorphin and male sexual behavior. Eur J Pharmacol 42: 191–192, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Pellegrini-Qurantotti B, Borda M, Paglietti E, Biggio G, Gessa G: Inhibition of copulatory behavior in male rat by D-Ala-Met-enkephalinamide. Life Sci 23:673–678, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gessa GL, Paglietti E, Pellegrini-Quarantotti B: Induction of copulatory behavior in sexually inactive rats by naloxone. Science 204:203–205, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Parr D: Sexual aspects of drug abuse in narcotic addicts. Br J Addict 71:261–268, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Crowley TJ, Simpson A: Methadone dose and human sexual behavior. Int J Addict 13: 285–295, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fabbri A, Janini EA, Gnessi L, Moretti C, Ulisse S, Franzese A, Lazzari R, Fraioli F, Frajese G, Isidori A: Endorphins in male impotence: evidence for naltrexone stimulation of erectile activity in patient therapy. Psychoneuroendocrinol 14:103–111, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Goldstein A, Hansteen RW: Evidence against involvement of endorphine in sexual arousal and orgasm in man. Arch Gen Psychiatr 34:1179–1180, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Goldstein JA: Erectile function and naltrexone. Ann Intern Med 105:799, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bitran D, Hull EM: Pharmacological analysis of male rat sexual behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 11:365–389, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Foreman MM, Hall JL: Effects of D2 dopaminergic receptor stimulation on male rat sexual behavior. J Neural Transm 68:153–170, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mogilnika E, Klimek V: Drugs affecting dopamine neurons and yawning behaviour. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 31:303–305, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Benassi-Benelli A, Ferrari F, Pellegrini-Quarantotti B: Penile erection induced by apomorphine and N-n-propylnorapomorphine in rats. Arch Int Psychodyn Ther 242:241–247, 1979.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lal S, Ackman D, Thavundayil JX, Kiely M, Etienne P: Effect of apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist, on penile tumescence in normal subjects. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 8:695–699, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lal S, Laryea E, Thavundayil JX, Vasavan Nair NP, Negrete J, Ackman D, Blundell P, Gardiner RJ: Apomorphine-induced penile tumescence in impotent patients-preliminary findings. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 11:235–242, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lal S, Tesfaye Y, Thavundayil JX, Thompson TR, Kiely ME, Nair NPV, Grassino A, Dubrovsky B: Apomorphine: clinical studies on erectile impotence and yawning. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 13:329–339, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Vogel HP, Schiffer R: Hypersexuality—a complication of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacopsychiat 16:107–110, 1983.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zarrindast M-R, Shokravi S, Samini M: Opposite influences of dopaminergic receptor subtypes on penile erection. Gen Pharmacol 23:671–675, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Pomerantz SM: Quinelorane (LY 163502), a D2 dopamine receptor agonist, acts centrally to faciliate penile erections of male rhesus monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 39:123–128, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Julien E, Over R: Male sexual arousal with repeated exposure to erotic stimuli Arch Sexual Behavior 13:211–221, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Segraves RT, Bari M, Segraves K, Spirnak P: Effect of apomorphine on penile tumescence in men with psychogenic impotence. J Urol 145:1174–1175, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Diederichs W, Stief CG, Lue TF, Tanagho EA: Norepinephrine involvement in penile detumescence. J Urol 143:1264–1266, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Winter CC, McDowell G: Experience with 105 patients with priapism: update review of all aspects. J Urol 140:980–983, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lin JS-N, YU-P-C, Yang MCM, Kuo J-S: Detumescent effect of clonidine on penile erection. Int J Impotence Res 1:201–210, 1989.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Zorgniotti AW: Editorial comment. J Urol 136:110, 1986.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Levin RM, Wein AJ: Adrenergic alpha-receptors outnumber beta-receptors in human penile corpus cavernosum. Invest Urol 18:225–226, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Dhabuwala CB, Ramakrishna VR, Anderson GF: Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue. J Urol 133:721–723, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Molina L, Bejany D, Lynne CM, Politano VA: Diluted epinephrine solution for the treatment of priapism. J Urol 141:1127–1128, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    van Driel MF, Mooibroek JJ, Mensink HJA: Treatment of priapism by injection of adrenaline into the corpora cavernosa penis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 25:251–254, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Zappala SM, Howard PJ, Hopkins TB, Blute RD: Management of intraoperative penile erections with diluted epinephrine solution. Urology 40:76–77, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Dittrich A, Albrecht K, Bar-Moshe O, Vandendris M: Treatment of pharmacological priapism with phenylephrine. J Urol 146:323–324, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Levine FJ, Saenz de Tejada I, Payton TR, Goldstein I: Recurrent prolonged erections and priapism as a sequela of priapism: pathophysiology and management. J Urol 145:77664–767, 1991.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Zaimis E: Vasopressor drugs and catecholamines. Anesthesiology 29:732–762, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Stief CG, Gilbert P, Wetterauer U, Bähren W, Thon W, Altwein JE: Metaraminol—ein Antidot bei SKAT-bedingter prolongierter Erektion. Urologe 25:164–165, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Block T, Sturm W, Ernst G, Staehler G, Schmiedt E: Metaraminol in der Therapie verschiedener Priapismusformen. Urologe 27:225–229, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Watters GR, Keogh EJ, Carati CJ, Earle CM, Wisniewski ZS, Tulloch AGS, Lord DJ: Prologed erections following intracorporeal injection of mediacations to overcome impotence. Br J Urol 62:173–175, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Porst H, van Ahlen H: Pharmakon-induzierte Priapismen-ein Erfahrungsberich über 101 Falle. Urologe 28:84–87, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Goldberg LI, Rajfer EI: Dopamine receptors: applications in clinical cardiology. Circulation 72:245–248, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lue TF, Hellstrom WJG, McAninch JW, Tanagho EA: Priapism: a refined approach to diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 136:104–108, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Shantha TR, Finnerty DP, Rodriquez AP: Treatment of persistent penile erection and priapism using terbutaline. J Urol 141:1427–1429, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bondil P: Letter to the Editor. J Urol 144:1483, 1989.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Nieder RM: Ketamine treatment of priapism. J Am Med Ass 221:195, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ravindran RS, Dryden GE, Somerville GM: Treatment of priapism with ketamine and physostigmine. Anesth Analg 61:705–707, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    McMahon CG: A comparison of the response to the intracavernosal injection of a combination of papaverine and phentolamine, prostaglandin PGE1 and a combination of all three agents in the management of impotence. Int J Impotence Res 3:113–121, 1991.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Allen RP, Engel RM, Smoley JK, Brendler CB: Objective double-blind evaluation of erectile function with intracorporeal papaverine in combination with phentolamine and/or prostaglandin E1. J Urol 148:1181–1183, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Steers WD, Selby Jr JB: Use of methylene blue and selective embolization of the pudendal artery for high flow priapism refractory to medical and surgical treatments. J Urol 146: 1361–1363, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Freygang H, Djamilian M, Thon WF, Stief CG, Jonas U: A new therapeutic concept for long-lasting iatrogenic priapism: a case report. J Urol 148:878–879, 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Erik Andersson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PharmacologyUniversity Hospital of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations