Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 559–583 | Cite as

Vocal communication as a function of differential rearing experiences inPan paniscus: A preliminary report

  • William D. Hopkins
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
Article

Abstract

There is little evidence of vocal learning in nonhuman primates despite the well-documented abilities found in avian species. We describe the vocal repertoire of five bonobos (Pan paniscus), four of which live in a seminatural environment. The fifth subject, Kanzi, has been reared with humans during the course of language training. The data indicated that the four bonobos living in a seminatural environment exhibit a variety of species-typical vocalizations. In addition to producing all the species-typical vocalization, Kanzi produced four structurally unique vocalizations that were not heard among the other subjects. These data suggest that Kanzi has learned vocalizations that are novel due to his unique rearing experience. Discussion is focused on the flexibility of vocal communication and vocal comprehension inPan paniscus.

Key words

vocal learning bonobo rearing condition communication 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken, P. G., and Wilson, W. A. (1979) Discriminative vocal conditioning on rhesus monkeys: Evidence of volitional control?Brain Language 8: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bates, E. (1979)The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and Communication in Infancy, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bruner, J. (1975). Nature and uses of immaturity.Am. Psychol. 8: 687–708.Google Scholar
  4. Chomsky, N. (1968).Language and Mind, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.Google Scholar
  5. De Waal, F. (1988) The communicative repertoire of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus) compared to that of chimpanzees,Behaviour 106: 183–251.Google Scholar
  6. De Waal, F. (1990). Behavioral contrast between bonobo and chimpanzee. In Heltne, P. G., and Marquardt, L. A. (eds.),Understanding Chimpanzees, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 154–176.Google Scholar
  7. Furness, W. H. (1916). Observations on the mentality in chimpanzees and orang-utans.Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 55: 281–290.Google Scholar
  8. Gardner, R. A., and Gardner, B. T. (1968). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee.Science 165: 664–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gautier, J. P. (1974). Field and laboratory studies of the vocalization of talapoin monkeys (Miopithecus talapoin).Behaviour 51: 209–273.Google Scholar
  10. Gouzoules, S., Gouzoules, H., and Marler, P. (1984). Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) screams: Representational signalling in the recruitment of agonistic aid.Anim. Behav. 32: 182–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hauser, M. (1989). Ontogenetic changes in the comprehension and production of vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) vocalizations.J. Comp. Psychol. 103: 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, K. J. (1951).The Ape in Our House, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Lancaster, J. (1969) Primate communication systems and the emergence of human language. In Jay, P. (ed.),Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, pp. 267–290.Google Scholar
  14. Lawick-Goodall, J. van. (1968). A preliminary report on expressive movements and communication in the Gombe Stream chimpanzees. In Jay, P. C. (ed.),Primates, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 318–378.Google Scholar
  15. Lieberman, P. (1975).On the Origins of Language, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Lieberman, P., Crelin, E. S., and Klatt, D. H. (1972) Phonetic ability and related anatomy of the new born, adult human, Neandrathal man, and the chimpanzee.Am. Anthropol. 74: 287–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Marler, P. (1965). Communication in monkeys and apes. In Devore, I. (ed.),Primate Behavior, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 432–465.Google Scholar
  18. Marler, P., (1976) An ethological theory of the origin of vocal learning.Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 280: 386–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Masataka, N., and Fujita, K. (1989) Vocal learning of Japanese and rhesus monkeys.Behaviour 4: 191–199.Google Scholar
  20. Mori, A. (1984). Comparison of the communicative vocalizations and behaviors of group ranging in Eastern gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos.Primates 24: 486–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Newman, J. D., and Symmes, D. (1973) Vocal pathology in socially deprived monkeys.Dev. Psychobiol. 7: 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Patterson, F. G. (1978). The gestures of a gorilla: Language acquisition in another pongoid.Brain Language 5: 72–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Premack, D. (1970). A functional analysis of langauge.J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 14: 107–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rumbaugh, D. M. (1977).Language Learning by a Chimpanzee: The LANA Project, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1986).Ape Language: From Conditioned Response to Symbols, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1987) Communication, symbolic communication and language: Reply to Seidenberg and Petitto.J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 116: 288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1988). A new look at ape language: Comprehension of vocal speech and syntax.Nebraska Symp. Motivat. 35: 201–256.Google Scholar
  28. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., McDonald, K., Sevcik, R. A., Hopkins, W. D., and Rubert, E. (1986). Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 115: 1–22.Google Scholar
  29. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Romski, M. A., Hopkins, W. D., and Sevcik, R. A. (1990). Symbol acquisition and use byPan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Homo sapiens. In Heltne, P. G. and Marquardt L. A. (eds.),Understanding Chimpanzees, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, pp. 266–296.Google Scholar
  30. Seyfarth, R. M., and Cheney, D. L. (1986) Vocal development in vervet monkeys.Anim. Behav. 34: 1640–1658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Seyfarth, R. M., and Cheney, D. L. (1990). Meaning, reference, intentionality in the natural vocalizations in monkeys. Paper presented at the. XIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan, July.Google Scholar
  32. Seyfarth, R. M., Cheney, D. L., and Marler, P. (1980a). Vervet monkey alarm calls: Semantic communication in a free ranging primate.Anim. Behav. 28: 1070–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seyfarth, R. W., Cheney, D. L., and Marler, P. (1980b). Monkey responses to three different alarm calls: Evidence of predator classification and semantic communication.Science 210: 801–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Snowdown, C. T. (1982). Linguistic and psycholinguistic approaches to primate communication. In Snowdown, C. T., Brown, C. H., and Peterson, M. R. (eds.),Primate Communication, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 212–238.Google Scholar
  35. Sinnott, J. M., Stebbins, W. C., and Moody, D. B. (1975). Regulation of voice amplitude by the monkey.J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58: 412–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Struhsaker, T. T. (1967). Auditory communication among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). In Altmann, S. A. (ed.),Social Communication, Among Primates, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 281–324.Google Scholar
  37. Sutton, D., Larson, C., Taylor, E. M., and Lindeman, R. C. (1973). Vocalization in the rhesus monkey: Conditionability.Brain Res. 52: 225–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winter, P., Handley, P., Ploog, D., and Schott, D. (1973). Ontogeny of squirrel monkey vocalizations under normal conditions and under acoustic isolation.Behaviour 47: 230–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yerkes, R. M., and Yerkes, A. M. (1929).The Great Apes: A Study of Anthropoid Life, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • William D. Hopkins
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
    • 3
  1. 1.Language Research CenterGeorgia State UniversityDecaturGeorgia
  2. 2.Yerkes Regional Primate Research CenterEmory UniversityAtlantaGeorgia
  3. 3.Department of BiologyGeorgia State UniversityDecaturGeorgia

Personalised recommendations