Characterization of developing antler cartilage matrix
Cartilage from the main beams and tines of deer antler was examined with the electron microscope. The material studied included prechondroblastic, chondroblastic and chondrocytic matrices. Ecdysial microfibrils (5–10 nm in diameter) were observed in the matrix of the prechondroblastic zone. These microfibrils and associated amorphous material were continuous with electron-dense material that probably represented extracellular units of collagen polymers. Matrix (proteoglycan) granules were first observed in the chondroblastic zone. They stained positively with colloidal iron and therefore probably represented proteinpolysaccharides. The matrix granules of the chondrocytic (unmineralized and mineralized) zone were twice the diameter of those in the chondroblastic zone. Matrix vesicles were present in all three stages of development. They were in contact with cellular extensions and also arose directly from cell membranes in the immature zones. As in somatic mineralizing cartilage, these vesicles served as the foci for early mineralization. The initial mineralization process was associated with the membrane of the vesicles.
Key wordsAntler Cartilage Matrix Ultrastructure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Banks, W. J., Neal, J.: The cartilaginous nature of the cervine antler. Proc. EMSA 28th Ann. Meetings, p. 154–155 (1970)Google Scholar
- Fahmy, A.: An extemporaneous lead citrate stain for electron microscopy. Proc. EMSA Ann. Meeting, vol. 25, p. 148–149 (1967).Google Scholar
- Frasier, M. B., Banks, W. J., Newbrey, J. W.: Characterization of developing antler cartilage matrix. I. Selected histochemical and enzymatic assessment. Calcif. Tiss. Res.17, 273–288 (1975).Google Scholar
- Howell, D. S.: Review article—current concepts of calcification. J. Bone Jt Surg.53A (2), 250–258 (1971).Google Scholar
- Jackson, D. S., Bentley, J. R.: Collagen-glycosaminoglycan interactions. In: Treatise of collagen, vol. 2, part A (G. N. Ramachandran, B. S. Gould, eds.), p. 434. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
- Martin, A. V. W.: An electron, microscope study of the cartilaginous matrix in the developing tibia of the fowl. J. Embryol. exp. Morph.2, 38–48 (1954)Google Scholar
- Mathews, J. L., Martin, J. H.: Atlas of human histology and ultrastructure, p. 382. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger 1971Google Scholar
- Millonig, G.: Advantages of a phosphate buffer for osmium tetroxide solutions in fixation. J. appl. Phys.32, 1637 (1961)Google Scholar
- Newbrey, J. W., Banks, W. J.: The ultrastructure of mature and mineralizing cartilaginous matrix in deer antler. Proc. EMSA 31st Ann. Meetings, p. 354–355. Baton Rouge: Claitor’s 1973Google Scholar
- Sabatini, D. D., Bensch, K. G., Barnett, R. J.: Preservation of ultrastructure and enzymatic activity of aldehyde fixation. J. Histochem. Cytochem.10, 652–653 (abstract) (1962)Google Scholar