Lipids

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 129–138

The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects

  • Kerrie Sanders
  • Leeann Johnson
  • Kerin O'Dea
  • Andrew J. Sinclair
Article

Abstract

This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing from a typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18∶2ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20∶5ω3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16∶1), eicosatrienoic (20∶3ω6) and arachidonic acids (20∶4ω6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16∶1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18∶1 and significant decreases in all ω3 PUFA except 22∶6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18∶2 and 20∶4ω6 and significant decreases in 18∶1, 20∶5ω3 and 22∶5ω3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (<6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, the long-term effects of VLF diets are unlikely to be deteterious since populations which habitually consume these diets have low rates of coronary heart disease. The addition of safflower oil or olive oil to a VLF diet produced favorable changes in the lipoprotein lipid profile compared with the addition of butter. The VLF diets and diets rich in butter, olive oil or safflower oil had different effects on the 20 carbon eicosanoid precursor fatty acids in the plasma. This suggests that advice on plasma lipid lowering should also take into account the effect of the diet on the fatty acid profile of the plasma lipids.

Abbreviations

CE

cholesteryl esters

LDL

low density lipoproteins

HDL

high density lipoproteins

PL

phospholipids

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acids

VLDL

very low density liporproteins

VLF

very low fat

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Stamler, J., Wentworth, D., and Neaton, J.D. (1986)J. Am. Med. Assoc. 256, 2823–2828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Health and Medical Research Council (1992)The Role of Polyunsaturated Fats in the Australian Diet, Canberra, ACT; Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sacks, F.M., and Willett, W.W. (1991)N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 1740–1742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O'Dea, K., Traianedes, K., Chisholm, K., Leyden, H., and Sinclair, A.J. (1990)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 491–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morgan, S., O'Dea, K., and Sinclair, A.J., (1993)J. Am. Dietet. Assoc. 93, 644–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rotterdam, E.P., Katan, M.B., and Knuiman, J.T. (1987)Clin. Chem. 33, 1913–1915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sinclair, A.J., Hopkins, G.W., and O'Dea, K. (1991)Wld. Rev. Nutr. Diet. 66, 548–549.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sinclair, A.J., O'Dea, K., Dunstan, G., Ireland, P.D., and Niall, M. (1987)Lipids 22, 523–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sandstrom, B., Marckmann, P., and Bindslev, N. (1992)Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 46, 95–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brinton, E.A., Eisenberg, S., and Breslow, J.L. (1990)J. Clin. Invest. 85, 144–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kussi, T., Ehnholm, C., Huttunen, J.K., Kostiainen, E., Pietinen, P., Leino, U., Uusitalo, U., Nikkari, T., Iacono, J.M., and Puska, P. (1985)J. Lipid Res. 26, 360–367.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keys, A., Anderson, J.T., and Grande, F. (1965)Metabolism 14, 776–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson, J.W., Story, L., Sieling, B., Chen, W.L., Petro, M.S., and Story, J. (1984)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 1146–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McDonald, I. (1967)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20, 345–351.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blum, C.B., Levy, R.I., Eisenberg, S., Hall, M., Goebel, R.H., and Berman, M. (1977)J. Clin. Invest. 60, 795–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Connor, W.E., Cerqueira, M.T., Connor, R.W., Wallace, R.B., Malinow, M.R., and Casdorph, H.R. (1978)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31, 1131–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mattson, F.H., and Grundy, S.M. (1985)J. Lipid Res. 26, 194–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shepherd, J., Packard, C.J., Patsch, J.R., Gotto, A.M., and Taunton, O.D. (1978)J. Clin. Invest. 61, 1582–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mensink, R.P., and Katan, M.B. (1989)N. Engl. J. Med. 321, 436–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iacono, J.M., and Dougherty, R.M. (1991)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 660–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mata, P., Alvarez-Sala, L.A., Rubio, M.J., Nuno, J., and De Oya, M. (1992)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 846–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jacobs, Jr., D.R., Anderson, J.T., Hannan, P., Keys, A., and Blackburn, H. (1983)Arteriosclerosis 3, 349–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katan, M.B., van Gastel, A.C., de Rover, C.M., van Montfort, M.A.J., and Knuiman, J.T. (1988)Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 18, 644–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grundy, S.M., and Vega, G.L. (1988)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 822–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manttari, M., Koskinen, P., Enholm, C., Huttunen, J.K., and Manninen, V. (1991)Metabolism 40, 217–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tikkanen, M.J., Xu, C.-F., Hamalainen, T., Talmud, P., Sarna, S., Huttenen, J.K., Pietinen, P., and Humphries, S. (1990)Clin. Genet. 37, 327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kendall, A., Levitsky, D.A., Strupp, B.J., and Lissner, L. (1991)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 1124–1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lasserre, M., Mendy, F., Spielmann, D., and Jacotot, B. (1985)Lipids 20, 227–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holman, R.T. (1964)Fed. Proc. 23, 1062–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    O'Dea, K., Steel, M., Naughton, J., Sinclair, A.J., Hopkins, G.W., Angus, J., He, G.W., Niall, M., and Martin, T.J. (1988)Lipids 23, 234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garg, M.L., Wierzbicki, A.A., Thomson, A.B.R., and Clandinin, M.T. (1989)Lipids 24, 334–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Budowski, P. (1988)Wld. Rev. Nutr. Diet. 57, 214–274.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Seyberth, H.W., Oetz, O., Kennedy, T., Sweetman, B.J., Danon, A., Frolich, J.C., Heimberg, M., and Oates, J.A. (1975)Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kinsella, J.E., Lokesh, B., and Stone, R.A. (1990)Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 1–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Willis, A.L. (1981)Prog. Lipid Res. 20, 834–850.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Oil Chemists’ Society 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerrie Sanders
    • 1
  • Leeann Johnson
    • 1
  • Kerin O'Dea
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Sinclair
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Nutrition and Public HealthDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Applied Biology and BiotechnologyRoyal Melbourne Institute of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations