, 43:103 | Cite as

Deposition of tempestites in the eastern Rheic strait: evidence from the Upper Palaeozoic of Southern Tuscany (Italy)

  • Huber Engelbrecht


The siliciclastic lithologies of the Poggio al Carpino Formation are described from a newly defined type locality: The sediments have been deposited in a shallowmarine, inner shelf and lower shoreface environment, characterized by a high dispersity of energetic levels. Due to its low palaeolatitude position (<20°S) near the southern coast of the E-W-striking Rheic Strait between Gondwana and Palaeoeurope, the depositional environment has been influenced by seasonal tropical gales. The bulk of the coarse-grained lithologies represents amalgamated proximal lag-type tempestites, containing reworked material from laminated siltstone- and shaleinterlayers (deposited during quiesent periods), older tempestites and parts of the stratigraphic substratum. Offshore bottom currents bypassed the outer shelf region and triggered turbiditic and olistostromatic input into the slope and extensional basin.


Siliciclasticinner shelf lower shoreface tropicalgales tempestites turbidites tuscan palaeozoic carboniferous 


  1. Aigner, T. (1985): Storm depositional systems. Dynamic stratigraphy in modern and ancient shallow-marine sequence.—Lecture Notes in Earth Science3, 174, p., 83 Figs., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnott, R. W. C. (1993): Quasi-planar-laminated sandstone beds of the Lower Cretaceous Bootlegger Member, North-Central Montana: Evidence of combined-flow sedimentation.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,63/3, 488–494, 8 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnott, R. W. &Southard, J. B. (1990): Exploratory flow-duct experiments on combined-flow bed configurations, and some implications for interpreting storm-event stratification.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,66/2, 211–219, 7 Figs., 1 Table, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagnoli, G. &Tongiorgi, M. (1979): New fossiliferous Silurian (Mt. Corchia) and Devonian (Monticiano) layers in the Tuscan Palaeozoic.—Mem. Soc. Geol. It.,20, 299–311, 5 Figs., 1 Pl., RomaGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee, I. (1996): Population, trends and cycles in combinedflow bedforms.—Jour. Sed. Res.,66/5, 868–874, 10 Figs., LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartoletti, E. & Tongiorgi, M. (1982): Richerche sulla geologia dei dintorni di Monticiano (Siena).—In: Energia geotermica: prospettive aperte dalle richerche del Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche-Progetto Finalizzato Energetica-Sottoprogetto Energia Geotermica-3, 85–98, 2 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya, H. N. &Bandhyopadhyay, S. (1998): Selsmites in a Proterozoic tidal succesion. Singhbhum, Bihar India.—Sed. Geol.119, 239–252, 3 Figs., Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boccaleiti, M., Decandia, F. A., Gasperi, G., Gelmini, R., Lazzarotto, A. & Zanzucchi, G. (1987): Carta structurale dell' Appennino Settentrionale. Note illustrative.—Publicazione n. 429–1982. Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica (Sottoprogetto 5), 203 p., 49 Figs., 4 Maps, SienaGoogle Scholar
  9. Cocozza, T. (1965): Il Carbonifero nel Gruppo Monticiano-Roccastrada.— Rendiconti8/3, 3–29, 27 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  10. Cocozza, T., Costantini, A., Lazzarotto, A., & Sandrelli, F. (1978): Continental Permian in Southern Tuscany (Italy).—In:Tongiorgi, M. (ed.): Report on the Tuscan Paleozoic.—Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Rapporto interno Sott. Ener. Geot., 35–49, 7 Figs., PisaGoogle Scholar
  11. Cocozza, T., Decandia, F. A., Lazzarotto, A., Pasini, M. &Vai, G.B. (1987): The marine Carboniferous sequence in Southern Tuscany: Its bearing for Hercynian paleogeography and tectofacies.—In:Flügel, H. W., Sassi, F. P. &Grecula, P. (eds.): Pre-Variscan and Variscan events in the Alpine-Mediterranean mountain belts.—IGCP Project No. 5, Mineralia Slovaca-Monography, 135–144, 4 Figs., Bratislava (Alfa Publishers)Google Scholar
  12. Cocozza, T., Lazzarotto, A. &Pasini, M. (1975): Segnalazione di una fauna Triassica nel conglomerato di Monte Quoio (Verrucano del Torrente Farma-Toscana Meridionale).—Riv. Ital. Paleont.,81/4, 425–436, 3 Figs., 1 Pl., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  13. Cocozza, T., Lazzarotto, A. &Vai, G.-B. (1974): Flysche molassa ercinici del Torrente Farma (Toscana).—Boll. Soc. Geol. It.,93, 115–128, 10 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  14. Conti, P., Costantini, A., Decandia, F. A., Elter, F. M., Gattiglio, M., Lazzarotto, A., Meccheri, M., Pandeli, E., Rau, A., Sandrelli, F., Tongiorgi, M. &Di Pisa, A. (1991): Structural frame of the Tuscan paleozoic: a review.—Boll. Soc. Geol. It.110, 523–541, 11 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  15. Costantini, A., Decandia, F. A., Lazzarotto, A. &Sandrelli, F. (1988): L'unitá di Monticiano-Roccastrada fra la Montagnola Senese e il Monte Leoni (Toscana Meridionale).—Atti Tic. Sci. Terra,31, 382–420, 15 Figs., 4 Tables, 1 Pl., PaviaGoogle Scholar
  16. Cotter, E. (1985): Gravel-topped offshore bar sequences in the Lower Carboniferous of souther Ireland.—Sedimentology32, 195–213, 14 Figs., Oxford (Blackwell)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cotter, E. (1990): Some effects on siliciclastic and carbonate shelf sediments in the medial Silurian succession of Pennsylvania.— Sediment. Geol.69, 245–258, 13 Figs, Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Decandia, F. A., Giannini, E. & Lazzarotto, A. (1980): Evoluzione paleogeografica del margine Appenninico nella Toscana a sud dell' Arno.—In: L'evoluzione tettonico-sedimentaria dell' Appennino Settentrionale. Libretto guida. Societá Geologica Italiana-70. Congresso, Siena 6–11.10.1980.-29-43, 1 Table, SienaGoogle Scholar
  19. Doglioni, C., Moretti, I., &Roure, F. (1991): Basal lithospheric detachment, eastward mantle flow and Mediterranean geodynamics: a discussion.—J. Geodynamics,13/1, 47–65, 6 Figs., OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dott, R. H. &Bourgeois, J. (1982): Hummocky stratification: Significance of its variable bedding sequences.—Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.93, 663–680, 24 Figs., 2 Tables, BoulderCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duke, W. L. (1985): Hummocky cross-stratification, tropical hurricanes, and intense winter storms.—Sedimentology32, 167–194, 8 Figs., 3 Tables, Oxford (Blackwell)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Engelbrecht, H. (1997a): Zur Geologie der Zone von Monticiano-Roccastrada.— Ph.D. Thesis Ludwig Maximillians University Munich, 237 p., 147 Figs., 4 Tables, 10 Maps, MunichGoogle Scholar
  23. — (1997b): From Upper Palaeozoic extensional basin fill to late Alpine low grade metamorphic core complex: preliminary note on the sedimentary and tectonic development of the Monticiano-Roccastrada Zone (MRZ; Southern Tuscany, Italy). —Z. dt. geol. Ges.,148/3–4, 523–546, 13 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  24. Engelbrecht, H., Klemm, D.-D. &Pasini, M. (1989): Preliminary notes on the tectonics and lithotypes of the “Verrucano s. l.” in the Monticiano Area (Southern Tuscany, Italy) and the finding of Fusulinids within the M.te Quoio Fm. (Verrucano Group). —Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat.94/3, 361–382, 5 Figs., 1 Pl., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferrari, A., Perri, C. &Vai, G.-B. (1977): Middle Carboniferous corals and conodonts from the Hercynian Farma <Massif> (Tuscany, Italy).—Giorn. di Geologia (2),42/1, 133–164, 2 Figs., 1 Table., 3 Pls., BolognaGoogle Scholar
  26. Giorgetti, G., Goffé, B., Memmi, I., &Nieto, F. (1998): Metamorphic evolution of Verrucano metasediments in northern Apennines: new petrologic constraints.—Eur. J. Mineral.,10, 1295–1308, 9 Figs., 3 Tables, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamblin, A. P. &Walker, R. G. (1979): Storm-dominated shallow marine deposits: the Fernie-Kootenay (Jurassic) transition, southern Rocky Mountains.—Can. J. Earth Sci.,16/9, 1673–1690, 12 Figs., 3 Tables, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  28. Howard, J. D. &Reineck, H.-E. (1981): Depositional facies of high-energy beach-to-offshore sequence: comparison with lowenergy sequence.—Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,65, 807–830, 19 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  29. Hunter, R. E. &Clifton, H. E. (1982): Cyclic deposits and hummocky cross-stratification of probable storm origin in upper cretaceous rocks of the Cape Sebastian Area, Southwestern Oregon.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,52/1, 127–143, 7 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  30. Jolivet, L., Faccenna, C., Goffé, B., Mattei, M., Rossetti, F., Brunet, C., Storri, F., Funiciello, R., Cadet, J. P., D'Agostino, N. &Parra, T. (1998): Midcrustal shear zones in postorogenic extension: Example from the northern Tyrrhenian Sea.—J. Geophys. Res.,103/B6, 12123–12160, 24 Figs., WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kelley, P. H. Raymond, A. & Lutken, C. B. (1990): Carboniferous brachiopod migration and latitudinal diversity: a new palaeoclimatic method.—In:McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R.: Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. Geol. Soc. Mem.12, 325–332, 4 Figs., 2 Tables, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Kreisa, R. D. (1981): Storm generated sedimentary structures in subtidal marine facies with examples from the Middle and Upper Ordovician of Southwestern Virginia.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,51/3, 823–848, 16 Figs., 1 Table, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumar, N. &Sanders, J. E. (1976): Characteristics of shoreface storm deposits: Modern and ancient examples.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,46/1, 145–162, 10 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  34. Leckie, D. A. &Walker, R. G. (1982): Storm- and Tide-Dominated Shorelines in Cretaceous Moosebar-Lower Gates Interval—Outcrop Equivalents of Deep Basin Gas Trap in Western Canada.—Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull.,66/2, 138–157, 22 Figs., 1 Table, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  35. Liotta, D. &Ranalli, G. (1999): Correlation between seismic reflectivity and rheology in extended lithosphere: Southern Tuscany, inner Northern Apennines, Italy.—Tectonophysics315, 109–122, 9 Figs., 1 Table, Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marsaglia, K. M. &Klein, G. DeV. (1983): The paleogeography of Paleozoic and Mesozoic storm depositional systems.—Jour. Geol.,91/2, 117–142, 14 Figs, 4 Tables ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCrory, V. L. C. &Walker, R. (1986): A storm and tidally-influenced prograding shoreline-Upper Cretaceous Milk River Formation of Southern Alberta, Canada.—Sedimentology33, 47–60, 12 Figs., Oxford (Blackwell)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McKie, T. (1994): Geostrophic versus friction-dominated storm flow: palaeocurrent evidence form the Late Permian Brotherton Formation, England.—Sed. Geol.,93, 73–84, 7 Figs., Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Myrow, P. M. &Southard, J. B. (1996): Tempestite deposition.— Jour. Sed. Res.,66/5, 875–887, 9 Figs., 1 Table, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  40. Nelson, C. H. (1982): Modern shallow water graded sand layers form storm surges, Bering Shelf: A mimic of Bouma sequences and turbidite systems.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.52/2, 537–545, 5 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  41. Nøttvedt, A. &Kreisa, R. D. (1987): Model of combined-flow origin of hummocky cross-stratification.—Geology,15, 357–361, 4 Figs., BoulderCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pandeli, E., Gianelli, G., Puxeddu, M. &Elter, F. M. (1992): The paleozoic basement of the Northern Apennines: stratigraphy, tectonometamorphic evolution and Alpine hydrothermal processes.— Mem. Soc. Geol. It.,48/2, 627–654, 12 Figs., 2 Tables,RomaGoogle Scholar
  43. Pandeli, E. &Pasini, M. (1990): Fusulinidi Permiani nella successione metamorfica del sottosuolo del M. Amiata, Toscana Meridionale (Italia).—Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat.,96/1, 3–20, 3 Figs., 3 Pls., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  44. Pandelli, E., Puxeddu, M., Gianelli, G., Bertini, G. &Castellucci, P. (1988): Paleozoic sequences crossed by deep drillings in the Monte Amiata geothermal region.—Boll. Soc. Geol. Il.107, 593–606, 6 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  45. Pasini, M. (1974):Archaeolythophyllum missouriensum Johnson, una Rhodophycea di interesse stratigrafico nel Carbonifero Superiore della Toscana e delle Alpi Orientali.—Riv. Ital. Paleont.,80/4, 591–602, 2 Pls., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  46. Pasini, M. (1978a): Further paleontological records from the Upper Paleozoic outcrops of the Farma Valley (Southern Tuscany):—In:M. Tongiorgi (ed.): Report on the Tuscan Paleozoic Basement: CNR, Rapporto interno del Sott. Ener. Geot., Prog. Fin Ener. —71–75, 2 Figs., PisaGoogle Scholar
  47. — (1978b):Edmondia scalaris (M'Coy, 1844) ePhestia ef.attenuata (Fleming 1828) nella Formazione Carpineta (Paleozoico superiore della Toscana Meridionale).—Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat.,84/4, 849–864, 3 Figs., 1 Pl., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  48. — (1979a): I fusulinidi della valle del Torrente Farma (Toscana Meridionale).—Mem. Soc. Geol. It.,20, 323–342, 3 Figs., 2 Pls., RomaGoogle Scholar
  49. — (1979b): Gil archaediscidi dell'affioramento di Poggio alle Pigne nella valle del Farma (Toscan meridionale).—Mem. Soc. Geol. It.,20, 343–346, 1 Fig., RomaGoogle Scholar
  50. — (1991): Residual evidences of Permian carbonatic platform within the Apennine sequences, (Italy).—Boll. Soc. Geol. It.110, 843–848, 2 Fig., RomaGoogle Scholar
  51. Pasini, M. &Winkler Prins, C.F. (1981): Carboniferous brachiopods from the locality Poggio alle Pigne in the Farma Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy).—Riv. Ital. Paleont.86/3, 459–468, 1 Fig., 1 Pl., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  52. Patacca, E., Sartori, R. & Scandone, P. (1993): Tyrrhenian basin and Apennines: Kinematic evolution and related geodynamic constraints.—In:Boschi, E., Mantovani, E., Morelli, A. (eds.): Recent evolution and seismicity of the Mediterranean Region.—NATO ASI Series C402, 161–171, 2 Figs, (Kluwer)Google Scholar
  53. Puxeddu, M., Raggi, G. &Tongiorgi, M. (1979): descrizione di alcuni sondaggi e osservazioni geologiche nel Paleozoico della Zona di Monticiano (Siena).—Mem. Soc. Geol. It.20, 233–242, 3 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  54. Rau, A. (1990): Evolution of the Tuscan Domain between the Upper Carboniferous and the Mid Triassic: a new hypothesis. —Boll. Soc. Geol. It.109/1, 231–238, 3 Figs., RomaGoogle Scholar
  55. Redini, R. (1941): Rinvenimento di Antracolitico nel Gruppo Monticiano-Roccastrada.—Boll. Soc. Geol. It.60, 331–334, RomaGoogle Scholar
  56. — (1958): Su varie questioni geologico-paleontologiche della Catena Metallifera Toscana. Sull'età Neotriassica della fauna del M. Rotondo, del M. Pisano e della fuann di Poggio Troncone, nelle Alpi Apuane.—Boll. Serv. Geol. d'It.79/3–5, 593–744 1 Pl. RomaGoogle Scholar
  57. Roeder, D. & Scandone, P. (1992): Recent tectonics of the Mediterranean. —In: A continent revealed. The European geotraverse. Eds.:D. Blundell, R. Freeman, St. Mueller; pp. 202–214, 5 Figs., Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  58. Scotese, C. R. & McKerrow, W. S. (1990): Revised world maps and introduction.—In:McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R.: Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. Geol. Soc. Mem.12, 1–21, 22 Figs., 1 Table, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Shiki, T. &Yamazaki, T. (1996): Tsunami-induced conglomerates in Miocene upper bathyal deposits, Chita Peninsula, central Japan.—Sed. Geol.104, 175–188, 11 Figs., Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Snedden, J. W., Nummedal, D. &Amos, A. F. (1988): Storm-and fair-weather combined-flow on the Central Texas continental shelf.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.58/4, 580–595, 1 Table, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  61. Southard, J. B., Lambie, J. M., Federico, D. C., Pile, H. T. &Weidmann, C. R. (1990): Experiments on bed configurations in fine sands under bidirectional purely oscillatory flow, and the origin of hummocky cross-stratification.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.60/1, 1–17, 2 Tables, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  62. Swift, D. J. P., Figueredo, A. G. Jr., Freeland, G. L. &Oertel, G. F. (1983): Hummocky cross-stratification and megaripples: a geological double standard?.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.53/4, 1295–1317, 11 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  63. Tavarnelli, E. (1996): Ancient synsedimentary structural control on thrust ramp development: an example from the Northern Appennines, Italy.—Terra Nova8, 65–74, 7 Figs., Oxford (Blackwell)Google Scholar
  64. Theye, T., Reinhardt, J., Goffé, B., Jolivet, L. &Brunet, C. (1997): Terro- and magnesio-carpholithe from the Monte Argentario (Italy): First evidence for high-pressure metamorphism of the metasedimentary Verrucano sequence, and significance for P-T path reconstruction.—Eur. J. Mineral.9, 859–873, 7 Figs., 2 Tables, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  65. Vai, G.-B. (1991): Palaeozoic strike-slip rift pulses and palaeogeography in the circum-Mediterranean Tethys realm.— Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology. Palaeoecology87, 223–252, 17 Figs., Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. — (1994): Crustal evolution and basement elements in the Italian area: Paleogeography and characterization.—Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl.36/141–144, 411–434, 8 Figs., TriesteGoogle Scholar
  67. Vai, G.-B. &Cocozza, T. (1986): Tentative schematic zonation of the Hercynian chain in Italy.—Bull. Soc. Geol. France8/2/no1, 95–114, 9 Figs., ParisGoogle Scholar
  68. Winn, R. D. Jr. (1991): Storm deposition in marine sand sheets: Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming.—Jour. Sed. Petrol.,61/1, 86–101, 12 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  69. Wright, M. E. &Walker, R. G. (1981): Cardium Formation (U. Cretaceous) at Seebe, Alberta—storm-transported sandstones and conglomerates in shallow marine depositional environments below fair-weather wave base.—Can. J. Earth Sci.18/4, 795–809, 13 Figs., 1 Table, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  70. Yagishita, K., Arakawa, S. &Taira, A. (1992): Grain fabric of hummocky and swaley cross-stratification.—Sed. Geol.78, 181–189, 8 Figs., Amsterdam (Elsevier)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut für Paläontologie, Universität Erlangen 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huber Engelbrecht
    • 1
  1. 1.Münche

Personalised recommendations