Advertisement

Facies

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 39–77 | Cite as

Late paleozoic and Late Triassic limestones from north Palawan Block (Philippines): Microfacies and paleogeographical implications

  • Wofgang Kiessling
  • Erik Flügel
Article

Summary

Selected Late Paleozoic and Triassic limestone exposures were studied on northern Palawan Island, Philippines, with regard to microfacies, stratigraphy and facies interpretation. Although some of the outcrops were already reported in literature, we present the first detailed microfacies study.

Late Paleozoic carbonates in the El Nido area are represented by widley distributed Permian and locally very restricted Carbonifenous limestones. Of particular interest is the first report of Carboniferous limestones in the Philippines dated by fossils. Fusulinids indicate a ‘Middle’ Carboniferous (Moscovian-Kasimovian) age of the Paglugaban Formation only known from Paglugaban Island. The Permian Minilog Formation consists mostly of fusulinid wackestones and dasycladacean wacke-/packstones. Fusulinid datings (neoschwagerinids and verbeekinids) provide a Guadalupian (Wordian-Capitanian) age. The depositional setting of the Middle Permian carbonates corresponds to a distally steepened ramp with biostromes built by alatoconchid bivalves locally associated with richthofeniid brachiopods.

Late Triassic limestones occur in isolated exposures on and around Busuanga Island (Calamian Islands). The age of the investigated carbonates is Rhaetian based on the occurrence ofTriasina hantkent Maizon. Microfacies data indicate the existence of reefs (Malajon Island) and carbonate platforms (Kalampisanan Islands, Busuanga Island, Coron Island). Reef boundstones are characterized by abundant solenoporacean red algae, coralline sponges and corals. Platform carbonates yield a broad spectrum of microfacies types, predominantly wacke- and packstones with abundant involutinid foraminifera and some calcareous algae. These facies types correspond to platform carbonates known from other parts of Southeast Asia (Eastern Sulawesi and Banda Basin; Malay Peninsula and Malay Basin). The Philippine platform carbonates were deposited on and around seamounts surrounded by deeper water radiolarian cherts.

The new data on facies and age of the Philippine Permian and Triassic carbonates contradict a close paleogeographical connection between the North Palawan Block and South China and arise problems for the currently proposed origin of the North Palawan Block at the paleomargin of South China. We hypothesize that North Palawan was part of the Indochina Block during the Carboniferous and Permian, separated from the Indochina Block during the Middle Permian and collided with the South China Block in the Late Cretaceous.

Keywords

Microfacies analysis Carbonate ramps and platforms Reefs Paleogeography Phillipines (palawan) Carboniferous Middles permian Late triassic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almasco, J.N., Rodolfo, K., Fuller, M. &Frost, G. (2000): Paleomagnetism of Palawan, Philippines.—J. Asian Earth Sciences18, 369–389, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Shaibani, S.K., Altiner, D., Bronnimann, P., Carter, D.L. &Zaninetti, L. (1982):Triasiha hantkeni Majzon, 1954 (Foraminifere) dans le Trias supérieur de la Tethys (Europe et Asie).—Arch. Sci. Genève,35, 137–142, GenèveGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Shaibani, S.K., Carter, D. &Zaninetti, L.A. (1984): Microfaunes associées aux Involutinidae et aux Milioliporidae dans le Trias supérieur (Rhétien) de Seram, Indonésie; précisions stratigraphiques et paléoecologiques.—Arch. Sci. Genève,37, 301–316, 3 Pls., GenèveGoogle Scholar
  4. Andal, P.P. (1966): A report on the discovery of fusulinids in the Philippines.—Philippine Geologist,20, 14–22, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  5. Archbold, N.W. &Shi, G.R. (1996): Western Pacific Permian marine invertebrate palaeobiogeography.—Australian J. Earth Sci.43, 635–641, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  6. Barattolo, F., DeCastro, P. &Parente, M. (1993): Some remarks onGriphoporella curvata (Gümbel 1872) Pia 1915, dasycladecean green alga from the Upper Triassic.—Boll. Soc. Paleont. Italiana, Spec Vol.1, 23–45, 7 Pls., 7 Figs., ModenaGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd, D.W. & Newell, N.D. (1979): Permian pelecypods from Tunisia.—American Museum Novitates,2686, 22. p., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunopas, S. (1981): Paleogeographic history of western Thailand and adjacent parts of SE Asia: A plate tectonics interpretation. —Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper,5, Special Issue 810 p., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  9. Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (1972): Geology and stratigraphy of some sedimentary basins in the Philippines.—Proc. 4th Symposium on the Development and Petroleum Research in Asia and Far East, Mineral and Resources Development Series,41, 445–451, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  10. Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (1981): Geology and mineral resources of the Philippines. Vol. 1, Geology.—406 p., ManilaGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, Y.N. (1989): Upper Palaeozoic and Lower Mesozoic radiolarian assemblages from the Busuanga Islands, North Palawan Block, Philippines.—Bull. Nat. Mus. Natural Sci. Taiwan,1, 129–175, TaichungGoogle Scholar
  12. — (1992): Upper Jurassic Pantanellidae (Pantanelliinae Pessagno, 1977, and Vallupinae Pessagno & MacLeod, 1987) from the Busuanga Islands, Philippines.—Bull. Nat. Mus. Natural Sci. Taiwan,3, 1–49, TaichungGoogle Scholar
  13. Chonglakmani, C. (1999): The Triassic system of Thailand: implications for the paleogeography of Southeast Asia.—In:Ratanasthien, B. & Rieb, S.L. (eds.): Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shallow Tethys (ST),5, 486–495, 3 Figs., Chiang Mai, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  14. Chonglakmani, C. & Grant-Mackie, J.A. (1993): Biostratigraphy and facies variation of the marine Triassic sequences in Thailand. —International Symposium on Biostratigraphy of Mainland Asia: Facies and Paleontology, 1993, 97–123, 7 Figs., 6 Tab., Chiang Mai, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornée, J.-J., Martini, R., Villeneuve, M., Zaninetti, L., Mattioli, E., Rettori, R., Atrops, F. &Gunawan, W. (1999): Mise en évidence du Jarassique inférieur et moyen dans la ceinture ophiolitique de Sulawesi (Indonésie). Conséquences géodynamiques. —Geobios,32, 385–394, 6 Figs., VilleurbanneCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornée, J.-J., Villeneuve, M., Martini, R., Zaninetti, L., Vachard, D., Vrielynik, B., Gunawan, W., Samodra, H. &Sarmili, L. (1994): Une plate-forme carbonatée d'age rhétien au centre-est du Sulawesi (région de Kolondale, Célèbes, Indonesie).—C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris,318, série II, 809–814, 4 Figs., ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Cruz, D.P. (1947): Manganese of Busuanga Island.—Philippine Geologists,1, 18–20, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawson, O., Baird, A. &Bosence, D. (1993): Non-rimmed margins to Permian carbonate platforms of Thailand.—J. Southeast Asian Earth Sciences,8, 181–186, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dragastan, O., &Richter, D.K. (1999): Late Jurassic oolites from the Acrocorinth (NE-Peloponnesus): Calcareous micro-algae as an exceptional paleoecologic indicator.—Bochumer Geol. Geotechn. Arb.,53, 149–172, 8 Pls., 11 Figs., BochumGoogle Scholar
  20. Dragastan, O., Richter, D.K., Gielisch, H. &Kube, B. (1998): Environmental significance of some Mesozoic ‘Porostromata’ calcareous algae.—Rev. Espan. Micropaleont.,30, 59–101, MadridGoogle Scholar
  21. Dragastan, O., Richter, D., Kube, B., Popa, M., Sarbu, A. &Ciugulea, L. (1997): A new family of Paleo-Mesozoic calcareous green siphons-algae (order Bryopsidales, class Bryopsidophyceae, phylum Siphonophyta).—Rev. Espan. Micropaleont.,29, 69–135, 10 Pls., 22 Figs., MadridGoogle Scholar
  22. Easton, W.H. &Melenderes, M.M. Jr. (1964): First Paleozoic fossils from Philippine archipelago.—Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol., 47, 1871–1873, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  23. El Tabak, M. & Utah-Aroon, C. (1998): Evolution of a Permian carbonate platform to siliciclastic basin: Indochina Plate, Thailand. —Sed. Geol.121, 97–129, 14 Figs., AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Encarnación, J.P., Essene, E.J., Mukasa, S.B. &Hall, C. (1995): High pressure and temperature subophiolitic kyanite-garnet amphibolites generated during initiation of Mid-Tertiary subduction, Palawan, Philippines.—J. Petrology,36, 1481–1503, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  25. Encarnacion, J. &Mukasa, S.B. (1997): Age and geochemistry of an anorogenic crustal melt and implications for T-type granite petrogenesis.—Lithos,42, 1–13, OsloCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Endo, R. (1968): Fossil algae from the Mindoro Oriental Province, Mindoro Island Philippines.—Geol. Palaeont. Southeast Asia,4, 211–219, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  27. Fan, J., Rigby, J.K. &Qi, J. (1990): The Permian reefs of South China and comparisons with the Permian Reef Complex of the Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas and New Mexico.—Brigham Young University Studies,36, 15–55, ProvoGoogle Scholar
  28. Flajs, G. & Hüssner, H. (1999): Richthofenien-Riffe im Perm der Insel Chios (Agäis).—Unpublished Research Report, Project Fl 131/8, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 42 p., 20 Pls., AachenGoogle Scholar
  29. Flajs, G., Hüssner, H., Fenninger, A. &Hubmann, B. (1996a): Upper Permian richthofeniid buildups of Chios Island (Aegean Sea)—preliminary report.—Jb. Geol. Bundesanstalt,139, 21–28, 2 Pls., 2 Figs., WienGoogle Scholar
  30. Flajs, G., Hüssner, H., Fenninger, A. &Hubmann, B. (1996b): A richthofenid-microbial-sponge buildup in the Upper Permian of Chios (Greece).—Göttinger Arb. Geol. Paläont., Sonderband2, 309–312, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  31. Flügel, E. (1977): Environmental models for Upper Paleozoic benthic calcareous algal communities.—In:Flügel, E. (ed.): Fossil Algae.—314–343, 4 Pls. 3 Figs., 8 Tab., Berlin (Springer)Google Scholar
  32. — (1981): Paleoecology and facies of Upper Triassic reefs in the Northern Calcareous Alps.—Soc. Econ. Paleont. Min. Spec. Publ.,30, 291–359, 26 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  33. — (1988):Halimeda: paleontological record and paleoenvironmental significance.—Coral Reefs,6, 123–130, 12 Figs., BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fontaine, H. (1979): Note on the Geology of the Calamian Islands, North Palawan, Philippines.—CCOP Newsletter,6, 40–47 2 Figs., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  35. — (1982): Guguk Bulat, a very famous Permian limestone locality of Sumatra (Indonesia).—CCOP Newsletter,9, 21–28, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  36. Fontaine, H. (1986): The Permian of Southeast Asia.—111 p., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  37. — (1992): Permian and Triassic fossils from Phangna, Peninsular Thailand.—CCOP Newsletter,17, 18–20, 1 Fig., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  38. Fontaine, H., Beauvais, L., Poumot, C. &Vachard, D. (1979): Données nouvelles sur le Mésozoique de l'ouest des Philippines. Découverté de Rhétien martin—C. R. somm. Soc. géol. France,1979, 117–121, 1 Pl., 1 Fig., ParisGoogle Scholar
  39. Fontaine, H., Iavid, P. &Tien, N. (1983): A note on the northwest Panay-Tablas area.—CCOP Newsletter,10, 8–13, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  40. Fontaine, H., Ingavat, R. &Vachard, D. (1982): Carboniferous corals from Northeast Thailand.—Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull.15, 47–56, 2 Pls., Kuala LumperGoogle Scholar
  41. Fontaine, H., Khoo, H.P. &Vachard, D. (1988): Discovery of Triassic fossils at Bukit Chuping in Gunum Sinyumarea and at Kota Jin Peninsula, Malaysia.—J. South East Asian Earth Science,2, 145–162, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fontaine, H. &Lee, K.W. (1993): A Triassic limestone (‘Pandan limestone’) discovered by drilling in Singapore/—CCOP Newsletter,18, 9–19, 3 Pls., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  43. Fontaine, H., Rodziah, D. &Singh, U. (1990): Discovery of an Upper Triassic limestone basement in the Malay Basin, offshore Peninsular Malaysia: regional implications.—J. Southeast Asian Earth Sciences,4, 219–232, 9 Figs., OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fontaine, H., Suteethorn, V. &Vachard, D. (1995): The Carboniferous of northeast Thailand: a review with new data.—J. Asian Earth Sciences,12, 1–17, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fontaine, H. &Tantiwanit, W. (1992): Permian and Triassic fossils from Phangna, Peninsular Thailand.—CCOP Newsletter,17, 18–20, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  46. Gazdzicki, A. (1983): Foraminifer and biostratigraphy of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic of the Slovakian and Polish Carpathians.—Palaeontologia Polonica,44, 109–169, Pl. 27–41, 21 Figs., Warszawa.Google Scholar
  47. Gazdzicki, A. &Smit, O.E. (1977): Triassic foraminifers from the Malay Peninsula.—Acta Geol. Polonica,27, 319–332, Pl. 1–10, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  48. Gervacio, F.C. &Fernandez, H.E. (1967): Age and nature of metallization of the Philippines.—Proc. 24th Geol. Convention, First Symp. Geol. Min. Res. Philippines and Neighbouring Countries,1, 52–75, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  49. Glenister, B.F., Wardlaw, B.R., Lambert, L.L., Spinosa, C., Bowring, S.A., Erwin, D.H., Menning, M. &Wilde, G.K. (1999): Proposal of Guadalupian and component Roadian, Wordian and Capitanian stages as international standards for the Middle Permian series.—Permophiles,34, 3–11, 4 Figs., Boise, IdahoGoogle Scholar
  50. Grgasovic, R. (1997): Upper Triassic biostratigraphy and algae from Zumberak (Croatia).—Geologica Croatica,50, 201–214, 2 Pls., 1 Fig., 3 Tab., ZagrebGoogle Scholar
  51. Hall, R. (996): Reconstructing Cenozoic SE Asia.—In:Hall, R. & Blundell, D. (eds.): Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ.,106, 153–184, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamilton, W. (1979): Tectonics of the Indonesian region.—U.S. Geol. Surv. Professional Paper,1078, 1–345, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  53. Hanzawa, S. &Hashimoto, W. (1970): Larger foraminifera from the Philippines.—Geol. Palaeont Southeast Asia,8, 187–230, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  54. Hashimoto, W. (1981): Geological development of the Philippines. —Geol. Paleont. Southeast Asia,22, 83–170, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  55. Hashimoto, W. &Sato, T. (1973): Geological structure of North Palawan, and ist bearing on the geological history of the Philippines.—Geol. Palaeont. Southeast Asia,13, 145–161 TokyoGoogle Scholar
  56. Hashimoto, W., Takizawa, S., Balce, G.R., Espirttu, E.A. &Baura, C.A. (1980): Discovery of Triassic conodonts from Malajon and Uson Islands of the Calamian Island Group, Palawan Province, The Philippines, and its geological significance. —Proc. Japanese Acad. Sci. Tokyo,56, 69–73, TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hauser, M., Vachard, D., Martini, R., Matter, A., Peters, T. &Zanitetti, L. (2000): The Permian sequence reconstructed from reworked carbonate clasts in the Batain Plain (northeastern Oman).—C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Sciences de la Terre et des planètes,330, 273–279, 4 Figs., ParisGoogle Scholar
  58. Helmcke, D. (1985): The Permo-Triassic ‘Paleotethys’ in mainland Southeast Asia and adjacent parts of China.—Geol. Rundschau,74, 215–228, StuttgartCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Helmcke, D., Ingavat-Helmcke, R. &Mejschner, D. (1993): Spätvariszische Orogenese und Terranes in Südost-Asien.— Göttinger Arb. Geol. Paläont.58, 29–38, 2 Figs., GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  60. Hohenegger, J. &Lobitzer, H. (1971): Die Foraminiferen-Verteilung in einem obertriadischen Karbonatplattform-Becken-Komplex der östlichen Nördlichen Kalkalpen (Dachsteinkalk-Aflener Kalk im südöstlichen Hochschwabgebiet, Steiermark).—Verh. Geol. Bundesantalt,1971, 458–485, 3 Pls., 4 Figs., WienGoogle Scholar
  61. Hohenegger, J. &Piller, W. (1975): Ökologie und systematische Stellung der Foraminiferen im gebankten Dachsteinkalk (Obertrias) des Nördlichen Toten Gebirges (Oberösterreich)— Palaeongeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,18, 241–276, 8 Pls., 5 Figs., AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Höhndorf, A., Einfalt, H.-C., Kreuzer, H., Leifeld, D., Müller, P., Wu, G. &Zhang, Y. (1992): Radiometric age determinations on granites and Sn−Nb−Ta-pegmatites from the Hengshan area, Guangning district, Guangdong Province, China.—Geol. Jh.,B76, 39–74, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  63. Holdwoth, B.K. (1966): A preliminary study of the paleontology and paleoenvironment of some Namurian limestone ‘bulion’. —Mercian Geologist,1, 315–377, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  64. Holloway, N.H. (1981): The North Palawan Block, Philippines—ist relation to Asian mainland and role in evolution of South China Sea.—Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull.,14, 19–58, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  65. — (1982): North Palawan Block, Philippines.—ist relation to Asian mainland and role in evolution of South China Sea.—Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull.,66, 1355–1383, 24 Figs., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  66. Hutchinson, C.S. (1989): Geological evolution of South-East Asia.—368 p., Oxford (Oxford Science Publications)Google Scholar
  67. Igo, H. (1972): Fusulinacean fossils from Thailand, Part VI.—Geol. Palaeont. Southeast Asia,10, 63–116, Pl. 9–19, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  68. Ingavat-Helmcke, R. & Helmcke, D. (1994): Permian facies-realms Thailand.—Proceedings of the International Symposium on Stratigraphic Correlation of Southeast Asia, November 1994, 100–105, 2 Figs., BangkokGoogle Scholar
  69. Jackson, J.B.C., Goreau, T.F. &Hartman, W.D. (1971): Recent brachiopod-corrlline sponge communities and their paleoecological significance.—Science,173, 623–625, 2 Figs., WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kawamurar, T. &Machiyama, H. (1995): A Late Permian coral reef complex. South Kitakami Terrane, Japan. Sed. Geol.,99, 135–150, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kemper, E., Maronde, H.-D. &Stoppel, D. (1976): Triassic and Jurassic limestones in the region northwest and west of Si Sawat (Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand).—Geol. Jb.,B, 21, 93–127, 6 Pls., 1 Figs., 1 Tab., HannoverGoogle Scholar
  72. Khuc, V. &Huyen, Dang Tran (1998): Triassic correlation of Southeast Asian mainland.—Paleogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,143, 285–291, 1 Fig., 1 Tab., AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kiessling, W. (1996): Facies characterization of mid-Mesozoic deep water sediments by quantitative analysis of siliceous microfaunas.—Facies,35, 237–274, Pl. 60–62, 32 Figs., 4 Tab., ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  74. Kiessling, W., Flugel, E. &Golonka, J. (1999): Paleoreef Maps: Evaluation of a comprehensive database on Phanerozoic reefs. —Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull.,83, 1552–1587, 16 Figs., 5, Tab., TulsaGoogle Scholar
  75. Kiessling, W. & Soechting, W. (1995): Stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural analysis of selected outcrops on Palawan, 1994 field work.—37 p., Shell Philippines Exploration B.V., confidential report, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  76. Kobayashi, F. (1997a): Middle Permian biogeography based on fusulinicaean faunas.—In: Ross, C.A., Ross, J.R.P. &Brenckle, P.L. (eds.): Late Paleozoic foraminifera; their biostratigraphy, evolution, and paleoecology; and the Mid-Carboniferous boundary. Cushman Found Foram. Res., Spec. Publ.,36, 73–76, 4 Figs., LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  77. Kobayashi, F. (1997b): Middle Permian fusulinacean faunas and paleogeography of exotic terranes in the Circum-Pacific.—In: Ross, C.A., Ross, J.R.P. &Brenckle, P.L. (eds.): Late Paleozoic foraminifera; their biostratigraphy, evolution, and paleoecology; and the Mid-Carboniferous boundary.—Cushman Found Foram. Res., Spec. Publ.,36, 77–80, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  78. — (1999): Tethyan uppermost Permian (Dzhulfian and Dorashamian) foraminiferal faunas and their paleogeographic and tectonic implications.—Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,150, 279–307, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kochansky-Devidé, V. (1978):Tanchintongia—eine aberrante permische Bivalve in Europa.—Paläont. Z.,52, 213–218, 3 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  80. Kochansky-Devidé, V. (1987): Distribution of the bivalve speciesTanchintongia ogulineci in Velebit.—Geologija,28/29, 151–155, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  81. Koike, T., Hashimoto, W. &Sato, T. (1968): Fusulinid-bearing limestone pebbles found in the Agbaha conglomerate, Mansalay, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines.—Geol. Palaeont. Southeast Asia,4, 198–210, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  82. Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1985): Foraminiferen aus dem rhätischen Kuta-Kalk von Papua/Neuguinea.—Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges.,78, 291–317, 6 Pls., 4 Figs., WienGoogle Scholar
  83. — (1986): Beobachtungen zur Trias am Südostende der Tethys-Papua (Neuguinea, Australian, Neuseeland.—N. Jb. Geol. Paläont., Mh.,1986, 201–222, 7 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  84. Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1990): Rhät-Foraminiferen aus dem Kuta-Kalk des Gurumugl-Riffes in Zentral-Papua/Neuguinea.— Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges.,82, 211–289, 20 Pls., 15 Figs., WienGoogle Scholar
  85. Kudrass, H.R., Wiedicke, M., Cepek, P., Kreuzer, H. &Müller, P. (1986): Mesozoic and Cainozoic rocks, dredged from the South China Sea (Reed Bank area) and Sulu Sea and their significance for plate-tectonic reconstructions.—Marine and Petroleum Geology,3, 19–30, 7 Figs., LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li, X-H. (2000): Cretaceous magmatisms and lithospheric extension in Southeast China.—J. Asian Earth Sciences,18, 293–305, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Martini, R., Vachard, D., Zaninetti, L., Cirilli, S., Cornée, J.-J., Lathuilière, B. &Villeneuve, M. (1997): Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and micropaleontology of the Upper Triassic reefal series in Eastern Sulawesi (Indonesia).—Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,128, 157–174, 2 Pls., 5 Figs., AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Metcalve, I. (1991): Allochthonous terrane processes in Southeast Asia.—In:Dewey, J.F., Gess, I.G., Curry, G.B., Harris, N.B.W. &Sengör, A.M.C. (eds.): Allochthonous Terranes.— 169–184, Cambridge (Cambridge University Press)Google Scholar
  89. — (1994): Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic paleogeography of eastern Pangea and Tethys.—Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geol., Mem.,17, 97–111, 9 Figs., CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  90. Ota, M. (1977): Geological studies of Akiyoshi. Part I. General geology of the Akiyoshi limestone group.—Bull. Akiyoshi-Dai Mus. Natural History,12, 1–34, Pl. 1–3, 3 Figs., 4 Tab., Shubocho, YamaguchiGoogle Scholar
  91. Pigram, C.J. &Panggabean, H. (1984): Rifting of the northern margin of the Australian continent and the origin of some microcontinents in eastern Indonesia.—Tectonophysics,107, 331–353, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Piller, W. (1978): Involutinacea (Forminifera) der Trias und des Lias.—Beitr. Paläont. Österreich,5, 1–164, 23 Pls., 16 Figs., WienGoogle Scholar
  93. Pillevut, A. (1993): Les bloc exotics du Sultanat d'Oman. Évolution paléogéographique d'une marge massive flexurale.—Mém. Geol. Lausanne, 17, 249 p., 7 Pls., 130 Figs., LausanneGoogle Scholar
  94. Puglifse, A. (1997): Middle-Late Triassic Dasycladales (green alga) from Brenta Dolomites (Giudicarie Alps, Italy).—Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat.,103, 71–80, 2 Pls., 2 Figs., 1 Tab., MilanoGoogle Scholar
  95. Reyes, C.A. (1971): Geological investigation of Palawan Island.— Oriental Petroleum and Mineral Corporation, Manila, unpublished report, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  96. Ru, K. &Pigott, J.D. (1986): Episodic rifting and subsidence in the South China Sea.—Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull.,70, 1136–1155, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  97. Rudwick, M.J.S. &Cowen, R. (1967): The functional morphology of some aberrant strophomenid brachiopods from the Permian of Sicily.—Boll. Soc. Paleont. Italiana,6, 113–176, 11 Pls., 29 Figs., ModenaGoogle Scholar
  98. Runnegar, B. &Gobbett, D. (1975):Tanchintongia gen. nov., a bizarre Permian myalinid bivalve from West Malaysia and Japan.—Palaeontology,18, 315–322, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Sano, H. &Kanmera, K. (1996): Microbial controls on Panthalassan Carboniferous-Permian oceanic buildups, Japan.—Facies,34, 239–256, Pl. 59–61, 5 Figs., ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  100. Sashida, K., Nakornsri, N., Ueno, K. &Sardsud, A. (2000): Carboniferous and Triassic radiolarian faunas from the Saba Yoi area, southeasternmost part of Peninsular Thailand and their paleogeographic significance.—Sci. Rep. Inst. Geoscience, Univ. Tsukuba, Sect. B,21, 71–99, TsukubaGoogle Scholar
  101. Senowbari-Daryan, B. &Flügel, E. (1996): A ‘problematic fossil’ revealed:Pycnoporidium? eomesozoicum Flügel, 1972 (Late Triassic, Tethys)-notan enigmatic alga but a striophomenid brachiopod (Gosaukammerella n.g.).—Facies,34, 83–100, Pl. 21–27, 3 Figs., 1 Tab., ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  102. Senowbari-Daryan, B. &Rigby, J.K. (1996): Brachiopod mounds not sponge reefs, Permian Capitan-Tansill Formations, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico.—J. Paleont.,70, 697–700, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  103. Senowbari-Daryan, B. &Schäfer, P. (1979): Distributional patterns of calcareous algae within Upper Triassic patch reef structures of the Northern Calcaerous Alps (Salzburg).—Bull. Cent. Rech. Explot.-Prod. Elf-Aquitaine,3, 811–820, 1 Pl., 3 Figs., PauGoogle Scholar
  104. Sokac, B. &Grgasovic, T. (1998):Asterocalculus heraki n.gen., n.sp., a new calcareous alga (Gymnocodiaceae) from the Upper Triassic Hauptdolomite of Zumberak, North Croatia.—Facies,38, 197–206, Pl. 48–50, 3 Figs., 1 Tab., ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  105. Tamura, M., Hashimoto, W., Igo, H., Ishibashi, T., Iwai, J., Kobayashi, T., Koike, T., Pitakpaivan, K., Sato, T. &Yin, E.H. (1975): The Triassic system in Malaysia, Thailand and some adjacent areas.—Geol. Palaeont. Southeast Asia,15, 103–149, 2 Figs., 12 Tab., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  106. Tan, B.K. (1996): ‘Suture zones’ in peninsular Malaysia and Thailand: implications for palaeotectonic reconstruction of southeast Asia.—J. Asian Earth Sciences,13, 243–249, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Taylor, B. &Hayes, D.E. (1980): The tectonic evolution of the South China Basin. The tectonic evolution of Southeast Asian seas and islands.—Geophysical Monograph Series, American Geophysical Union,23, 89–104, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  108. — & — (1983): Origin and history of the South China Sea.— Geophysical Monograph Series, American Geophysical Union,27, 23–56, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  109. Thiele, O. &Tichy, G. (1980): Über das Auftreten vonTanchintongia (Bivalvia) im Perm des Iran.—Karinthin,82, 166–173, KlagenfurtGoogle Scholar
  110. Tien, N.D. (1989): Middle Permian foraminifera.—In:Fontaine, H. &Gafoer, S. (eds.): The Pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments, 113–148, Bankok (CCOP Technical Secretariat)Google Scholar
  111. Ueno, K. (1999): Gondwana/Tethys divide in East Asia: solution from late Paleozoic foraminiferal paleobiogeography.—In:Ratanasthien, B. & Rieb, S.L. (eds.): Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shallow Tethys (ST)5, 45–54, 3 Figs., Chiang Mai, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  112. Ueno, K. &Igo, H. (1997): Late Paleozoic foraminifers from the Chiang Dao area, northern Thailand. Geologic age, faunal affinity, and paleobiogeographic implications.—Proceedings of the XIII International Congress on the Carboniferous and Permian,1, 339–358, 4 Pls., 7 Figs., WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  113. Ueno, K., Nagai, K., Nakornsri, N. &Sugiyama, T. (1994): Middle Carboniferous foraminifers from Ban Sup, Changwat Loei, northeastern Thailand.—Sci. Rep. Inst. Geosci., Univ. Tsukuba, Sect. B, Geol. Sci.,15, 15–45, 9 Figs., TsukubaGoogle Scholar
  114. Ueno, K., Nagai, K., Nakornsri, N. &Sugiyama, T. (1995): Upper Carboniferous foraminifers from Phu Tham Maholan, southeast of Wang Saphung, Changwat Loei, Northeast Thailand.— Sci. Rep. Inst. Geosci., Univ. Tsukuba, Sect. B, Geol. Sci.,16, 19–37, 3 Figs., TsukubaGoogle Scholar
  115. Ueno, K., Nagai, K., Nakornsri, N. &Sugiyama, T. (1996): A new Moscovian foraminiferal fauna from Huai Luang, east of Wang Saphung, Changwat Loei, Northeast Thailand.—J. Southeast Asian Earth Sciencees,14, 79–89, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vachard, D. (1986): Some foraminifera and algae of the Upper Triassic of Thailand.—In:Fontaine, H. et al. (eds.): The Upper Paleozoic and Triassic fossils of West Thailand.—23rd CCOP Session, Madang, Papua New Guinea, 142–146, Pl. 18–19, MadangGoogle Scholar
  117. — (1988a): Some foraminifera and algae from the Upper Triassic of west Thailand.—CCOP Technical Bull.,20, 135–141, Pl. 19–20, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  118. — (1988b): Biostratigraphic importance of Triassic foraminifera and algae from south-east Asia.—Rev. Paléobiol.,7, 87–98. 3 Pls., 2 Figs., GenèveGoogle Scholar
  119. Vachard, D., Martini, R. &Zaninetti, L. (1995): Le Murgabien á fusulinoides des isles Hydra, Crète et Mytilène (Permien supérieur de Grèce).—Geobios,28, 395–406, Pl. 53–55, 4 Figs., VilleurbanneCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Villeneuve, M., Cornee, J.-J., Martini, R., Zaninetti, L., Rehault, J.-P., Burhanudin, S. &Malod, J. (1994): Upper Triassic shallow water limestones in the Sinta Ridge (Banda Sea, Indonesia).—Geo-Marine Letters,14, 29–35, 5 Figs., BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vinassa de Regny, P. (1915): Triadische Algen, Spongien, Anthozoen und Bryozoen aus Timor.—Paläontologie von Timor,4, 75–118, Pls., 63–72, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  122. Wang Y., Chen, C., He, G. &Chen, J. (1981): An outline of the marine Triassic in China.—International Union of Geological Sciences, Publ. No.7, 1–21, 1 Fig., 1 Tab., ParisGoogle Scholar
  123. Wang, Y. &Jin, Y. (2000): Permian paleogeographic evolution of the Jiangnan Basin, South China.—Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol.,160, 35–44, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wanner, J. (1907): Triaspetrefakten der Molukken und des Timorarchipels.—N. Jb. Min. Geol. Paläont., Beilageband24, B, 161–220, Pl. 7–12, 4 Figs., StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  125. Wiedecke, M. (1987): Biostratigraphie, Mikrofazies und Diagenese tertiärer Karbonate aus dem Südchinesischen Meer (Dangerous Grounds-Palawan, Philippinen).—Facies,16, 195–302, Pl. 37–51, 24 Figs., 12 Tab., ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  126. Wielchowsky, C.C. & Young, J.D. (1985). Regional facies variations in Permian rocks of the Phetchabun told and thrust belt, Thailand.—Conference on Geology and Mineral Resopurces Development of the Northeast, Thailand, Khon Kaen University, November 1985, 41–55, 6 Figs., Khon KaenGoogle Scholar
  127. Wilckens, O. (1937): Korallen und Kalkschwämme aus dem obertriadischen Pharetronenkalk von Seran (Molukken).—N. Jb. Min. Geol. Paläont., Beilageband,77, B, 171–211. Pl. 6–13, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilson, J.L. (1975): Carbonate facies in geologic history.—471 p., Berlin (Springer)Google Scholar
  129. Wolfart, R., Cepek, P., Gramann, F., Kemper, E. &Porth, H. (1986): Stratigraphy of Palawan Island, Philippines.—Newsletter Strat.,16, 19–48, 5 Figs., BerlinGoogle Scholar
  130. Wood, R. (1993): Nutrients, predation and the history of reefbuilding. —Palaios,8, 526–543, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  131. Yeh, K.-Y. (1990): Taxonomic studies of Triassic Radiolaria from Busuanga Island, Philippines.—Bull. Nat. Mus. Natur. Sci. Taiwan,2, 1–63, TaichungGoogle Scholar
  132. Yeh, K.-Y. &Cheng, Y.-N. (1996): Jurassic radiolarians from the northwest coast of Busuanga Island, North Palawan Block, Philippines.—Micropaleontology,42, 93–124, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zaw, Win (2000): Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographical consideration on the Akasaka limestone, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.— Bull. Kitakyushu Mus. Natur. Hist.,19, 9–23, 6 Figs., 1 Tab., KitakiyushuGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang, Z.M., Liou, J.G. &Coleman, R.G. (1984): An outline of the plate tectonics of China.—Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.,95, 295–312, BoulderCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut für Paläontologie, Universität Erlangen 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wofgang Kiessling
    • 1
  • Erik Flügel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PaläontologieUniversität Erlagen-NürnbergErlangen

Personalised recommendations