Triacylglycerol structure of human colostrum and mature milk
Because triacylglycerol (TAG) structure influences the metabolic fate of its component fatty acids, we have examined human colostrum and mature milk TAG with particular attention to the location of the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid on the glycerol backbone. The analysis was based on the formation of various diacylglycerol species from human milk TAG upon chemical (Grignard degradation) or enzymatic degradation. The structure of the TAG was subsequently deduced from data obtained by gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters in the diacylglycerol subfractions. The highly specific TAG structure observed was identical in mature milk and colostrum. The three major fatty acids (oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids) each showed a specific preference for a particular position within milk TAG: oleic acid for thesn-1 position, palmitic acid for thesn-2 position and linoleic acid for thesn-3 position. Linoleic and α-linolenic acids exhibited the same pattern of distribution and they were both found primarily in thesn-3 (50%) andsn-1 (30%) positions. Their longer chain analogs, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, were located in thesn-2 andsn-3 positions. These results show that polyunsaturated fatty acids are distributed within the TAG molecule of human milk in a highly specific fashion, and that in the first month of lactation the maturation of the mammary gland does not affect the milk TAG structure.
polyunsaturated fatty acids
very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.American Academy of Pediatrics (1982)Pediatrics 69, 654–661.Google Scholar
- 4.Salem, N., Kim, H.-Y., and Yergey, J.A. (1986) inHealth Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Seafoods (Simopoulos, A.P., Kifer, R.R., and Martin, R.E., eds.) pp. 263–317, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- 6.Caroll, K.K. (1989)J. Nutr. 119, 1810–1813.Google Scholar
- 7.ESPGAN Committee on Nutrition (1991)Acta Paediatr. Scand. 80, 887–896.Google Scholar
- 21.Paltauf, F., Esfandi, F., and Holasek, A. (1974)Fed. Eur. Biol. Sci. 40, 119–123.Google Scholar
- 37.Whestone, H.D., Hurley, W.L., and Davis, C.L. (1986)Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 85 B, 687–692.Google Scholar
- 45.Iverson, S.J., and Hamosh, M. (1992)Pediatr. Res. 31 (Part 2), 108A.Google Scholar
- 47.Christie, W.W., and Clapperton, J.L. (1982)J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 35, 22–24.Google Scholar