Neurochemical Research

, Volume 21, Issue 11, pp 1469–1488

Opioid receptors: Some perspectives from early studies of their role in normal physiology, stress responsivity, and in specific addictive diseases

  • Mary Jeanne Kreek
Reward/Drug Abuse Mechanisms

Abstract

The early history of research on the possible existence of specific opioid receptors and on developing a new form of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of heroin addiction in New York City, from 1960–1973, along with the special relationships between two leading scientists conducting these research efforts, Dr. Eric Simon and Dr. Vincent P. Dole Jr., are presented in a historical perspective. The linkage of these early efforts and the subsequent identification and the elucidation of the effects of exogenous opiates acting at specific opiate receptors in human physiology, including some findings from perspective studies of heroin addicts at time of entry to and during methadone maintenance treatment, are presented in the context of the important clues which thereby were provided concerning the possible roles of the endogenous opioids in normal mammalian physiology. From many of these early clinical research findings and studies in animal models, the hypothesis that the endogenous opioids system may play an important role in stress responsivity was formulated along with the related hypothesis, first presented in the early 1970s, that an atypical responsivity to stress and stressors might be involved in the acquisition and persistence of, and relapse to specific addictive diseases, including heroin addiction, cocaine dependency and alcoholism. More recent studies of the possible involvement of the specific opioid receptors in these three addictive diseases—heroin addiction, cocaine addiction and alcoholism—from our laboratory are discussed in a historical perspective of the development of these ideas from the early research findings of not only Dr. Eric Simon, but his numerous colleagues in opioid research in the United States and throughout the world.

Key Words

Opioid receptors stress responsivity addictive disease 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Simon, E. J. 1963. Inhibition of RNA synthesis of E. Coli by the narcotic drug levorphanol. Nature. 198:794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simon, E. J. 1964. Inhibition of bacterial growth by drugs of the morphine series. Science. 144:543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simon, E. J. and Van Praag, D. 1964. The inhibition of RNA synthesis in E. Coli by levorphanol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 51:877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simon, E. J. and Van Praag, D. 1964. Selective inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis in E. Coli by levorphanol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 51:1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dole, V. P., Nyswander, M. E. and Kreek, M. J.: Narcotic blockade. Arch. Intern. Med., 118:304–309, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kreek, M. J. 1992. Epilogue: Medical maintenance treatment for heroin addiction, from a retrospective and prospective viewpoint. Pages 255–272,in State Methadone Maintenance Treatment Guidelines. Office for Treatment Improvement, Division for State Assistance.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kreek, M. J. 1992. The addict as a patient. Pages 997–1009,in Lowinson, J. H., Ruiz, P., Millman, R. B., and Langrod, J. G., (eds.), Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nyswander, M. 1956. The drug addict as a patient. Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dole, V. P., Nyswander, M. E. and Kreek, M. J.: Narcotic blockade: a medical technique for stopping heroin use by addicts. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys. 79:122–136, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kreek, M. J. 1991. Using methadone effectively: Achieving goals by application of laboratory, clinical, and evaluation research and by development of innovative programs. Pages 245–266,in Pickens, R., Leukefeld, C., and Schuster, C. R. (eds.) Improving Drug Abuse Treatment, NIDA Research Monograph Series 106, Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kreek, M. J. 1992. Rationale for maintenance pharmacotherapy of opiate dependence. Pages 205–230,in O'Brien, C. P. and Jaffe, J. H. (eds.), Addictive States, Raven Press, Ltd., New York.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kreek, M. J. 1996. Long-term pharmacotherapy for opiate (primarily heroin) addiction: Opiate Agonists. Pages 487–541,in Schuster, C. R. and Kuhar, M. J. (eds.), Pharmacological Aspects of Drug Dependence: Toward an Integrated Neurobehavioral Approach, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kreek, M. J. 1996. Opiates, opioids and addiction. Mol. Psych., in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kreek, M. J. 1996. Cocaine, dopamine and the endogenous opioid system. Journal of Addictive Diseases, (in press).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McLellan, A. T., Arndt, I. O., Metzger, D. S., Woody, G. E., and O'Brien, C. P. 1993. The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. JAMA 269(15):1953–1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ball, J. C. and Ross, A. 1991. The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment: Patients, programs, services, and outcome. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Inturrisi, C. E. and Verebely, K. 1972. The levels of methadone in the plasma in methadone maintenance. Clin. Pharm. and Ther., 18:633–637.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Inturrisi, C. E. and Verebely, K. 1972. Disposition of methadone in man after a single oral dose. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 13:923–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dole, V. P. and Kreek, M. J. 1973. Methadone plasma level: Sustained by a reservoir of drug in tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 70:10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kreek, M. J. 1973. Plasma and urine levels of methadone. N.Y. State J. Med., 73:2773–2777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kreek, M. J., Garfield, J. W., Gutjahr, C. L. and Giusti, L. M. 1976. Rifampin-induced methadone withdrawal. New Engl. J. Med., 294:1104–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kreek, M. J., Gutjahr, C. L., Garfield, J. W., Bowen, D. V., and Field, F. H. 1976. Drug interactions with methadone. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 281:350–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hachey, D. L., Kreek, M. J. and Mattson, D. H. 1977. Quantitative analysis of methadone in biological fluids using deuteriumlabeled methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Sci., 66:1579–1582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rubenstein, R. B., Kreek, M. J., Mbawa, N., Wolff, W. I., Korn, R., and Gutjahr, C. L. 1978. Human spinal fluid methadone levels. Drug and Alc. Dep., 3:103–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kreek, M. J., Hachey, D. L. and Klein, P. D. 1979. Stereoselective disposition of methadone in man. Life Sci., 24:925–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kreek, M. J., Bencsath, F. A. and Field, F. H. 1980. Effects of liver disease on urinary excretion of methadone and metabolites in maintenance patients: Quantitation by direct probe chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, 7: 385–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Novick, D. M., Kreek, M. J., Fanizza, A. M., Yancovitz, S. R., Gelb, A. M. and Stenger, R. J. 1981. Methadone disposition in patients with chronic liver disease. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 30: 353–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakamura, K., Hachey, D. L., Kreek, M. J., Irving, C. S., and Klein, P. D. 1982. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled2H5,2H8 methadone. J. Pharm. Sci. 71:39–43.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kreek, M. J., Bencsath, F. A., Fanizza, A. and Field, F. H. 1983. Effects of liver disease on fecal excretion of methadone and its unconjugated metabolites in maintenance patients: Quantitation by direct probe chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Biomed. Mass. Spectrm. 10:544–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ingoglia, N. A. and Dole, V. P. 1970. Localization of d- and 1-methadone after intra ventricular injection into rat brain. J. Pet. and Ther. 175:84–87.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dole, V. P. 1970. Biochemistry of Addiction. Ann. Rev. of Biochem. 39:821–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harte, E. H., Gutjahr, C. L., and Kreek, M. J. 1976. Long-term persistence of dl-methadone in tissues. Clin. Res. 24:623A.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldstein, A., Lowney, L. T., and Pal, B. K. 1971. Stereospecific and nonspecific interactions of the morphine congener levorphanol in subcellular fractions of mouse brain. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 68:1742–1747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pert, C. B., and Snyder, S. H. 1973. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 179:1011–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simon, E. J., Hiller, J. M., and Edelman, I. 1973. Stereospecific binding of the potent narcotic analgesic [3H]Etorphine to ratbrain homogenate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 70:1947–1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Terenius, L. 1973. Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasma membrane fraction of rat cerebral cortex. Acta Pharmacologica ET Toxicologica. 32:317–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dole, V. P., and Nyswander, M. E. 1965. A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction. JAMA. 193:646–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kreek, M. J. 1972. Medical safety, side effects and toxicity of methadone. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Methadone Treatment, NAPAN-NIMH, 171–174.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kreek, M. J., Dodes, L., Kane, S, Knobler, J. and Martin, R. 1972. Long-term methadone maintenance therapy: Effects on liver function. Ann. Intern. Med., 77:598–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kreek, M. J. 1973. Medical safety and side effects of methadone in tolerant individuals. J. Amer. Med. Assn., 223:665–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kreek, M. J. 1973. Physiological implications of methadone treatment.in Methadone Treatment Manual, U.S. Dept. of Justice (USGPO) 2700-00227, Washington, D.C. 85–91.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cushman, P., and Kreek, M. J. 1974. Methadone-maintained patients. Effects of methadone on plasma testosterone, FSH, LH and prolactin. N.Y. State J. Med. 74:1970–1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kreek, M. J. 1978. Medical complications in methadone patients. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 311:110–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cushman, P., and Kreek, M. J. 1974. Some endocrinologic observations in narcotic addicts. Pages 161–173,in Zimmerman, E. and George, R. (eds.), Narcotic and the Hypothalamus, Raven Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Novick, D. M., Ochshorn, M., Ghali, V., Croxson, T. S., Mercer, W. D., Chiorazzi, N., and Kreek, M. J. 1989. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in parenteral heroin abusers and long-term methadone maintenance patients. J. Pharm. Exper. Ther. 250:606–610.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Culpepper-Morgan, J. A., Inturrisi, C. E., Portenoy, R. K., Foley, K., Houde, R. W., Marsh, F., and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Treatment of opioid induced constipation with oral naloxone: A pilot study. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 23:90–95.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Novick, D. M., Richman, B. L., Friedman, J. M., Friedman, J. E., Fried, C., Wilson, J. P., Townley, A., and Kreek, M. J. 1993. The medical status of methadone maintained patients in treatment for 11–18 years. Drug and Alc. Dep. 33:235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kreek, M. J., Schaefer, R. A., Hahn, E. F. and Fishman, J. 1983. Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, reverses chronic idiopathic constipation. Lancet, Feb. 5, 261–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kreek, M. J., Fishman, J., Hahn, E. F., and Schaefer, R. A. 1983. Naloxone in chronic constipation (Letter to the editor). Lancet, April 2, 758.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Culpepper-Morgan, J., Kreek, M. J., Holt, P. R., La Roche, D., Zhang, J., and O'Bryan, L. 1988. Orally administered kappa as well as mu opiate delay gastrointestinal transit time in the guinea pig. Life Sciences, 42:2073–2077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Culpepper-Morgan, J. A., Holt, P. R., LaRoche, D., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Orally administered opioid antagonists reverse both mu and kappa opioid agonist delay of gastrointestinal transit in the guinea pig. Life Sciences. 56:1187–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kreek, M. J. and Culpepper-Morgan, J. A. 1994. Constipation syndromes. Pages 179–208,in Lewis, J. H. (ed.) A Pharmacologic Approach to Gastrointestinal Disorders.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhang, J. S., Plevy, S., Albeck, H., Culpepper-Morgan, J., Friedman, J. and Kreek, M. J.: Effects of age on distribution of preproenkephalin-like mRNA in the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea pig. Advances in the Biosciences: Proceedings of 1988 INRC meeting, 75:349–350, 1989.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhang, J., Albeck, H., Culpepper-Morgan, J., Friedman, J., and Kreek, M. J. 1988. Distribution of preproenkephalin mRNA in the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea pig. Clinical Research, 36: 402A.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yuferov, V. P., LaForge, K. S., Spangler, R., Maggos, C. E., and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Guinea Pig Preprodynorphin mRNA: Primary structure and regional quantitation in the brain. DNA and Cell Biology, (in press).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yuferov, V., Culpepper-Morgan, J. A., Claye, L. H., LaForge, K. S., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Quantification of preprodynorphin (DYN) mRNA in guinea pig gut using a highly sensitive solution hybridization assay. Abstracts of the AGA Meeting, Digestive Disease Week.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eisenman, A. J., Fraser, H. F., Sloan, J., and Isbell H. 1958. Urinary 17-ketosteroid excretion during a cycle of addiction to morphine. JPET 124:305–311.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stimmel, B., and Kreek, M. J. 1975. Pharmacologic actions of heroin.in: B. Stimmel, (ed.) Heroin dependency: Medical, economic and social aspects, New York, NY: Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 71–87.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kreek, M. J. 1975. Pharmacologic modalities of therapy: Methadone maintenance and the use of narcotic antagonists. in B. Stimmel, (ed), Heroin dependency: Medical, economic and social aspects, New York, NY: Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., 232–290.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kreek, M. J., Wardlaw, S. L., Friedman, J., Schneider, B., and Frantz, A. G. 1981. Effects of chronic exogenous opioid administration on levels of one endogenous opioid (beta-endorphin) in man. Pages 364–366in Simon, E. and Takagi, H. (eds.) Advances in Endogenous and Exogenous Opioids,: Kodansha Ltd. Publishers, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kreek, M. J., and Hartman, N. 1982. Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: Side effects, effects on endogenous opioids and toxicity. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 398:151–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kreek, M. J., Wardlaw, S. L., Hartman, N. Raghunath, J., Friedman, J., Schneider, B., and Frantz, A. G. 1983. Circadian rhythms and levels of beta-endorphin, ACTH, and cortisol during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Life Sciences, Sup. I. 33:409–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kreek, M. J., Raghunath, J., Plevy, S., Hamer, D., Schneider, B., and Hartman, N. 1984. ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin response to metyrapone testing during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Neuropeptides. 5:277–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kennedy, J. A., Hartman, N., Sbriglio, R., Khuri, E., and Kreek, M. J. 1990. Metyrapone-induced withdrawal symptoms. Brit. J. Addict. 85:1133–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Piazza, P. V., Maccrii, S., Deminiere, J.-M., Le Moal, M., Mormede, M., and Simon, H. 1991. Corticosterone levels determine individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 33:2088–2092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Piazza, P. V., Deroche, V., Deminiere, J.-M., Maccari, S., Le Moal, M., and Simon, H. 1993. Corticosterone in the range of stress-induced levels possesses reinforcing properties: Implication for sensation-seeking behaviors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90:11738–11742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Piazza, P. V., Deminiere, J-M., Le Moal, M., and Simon, H. 1994. Factors that predict individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration. Science. 245:1511–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Piazza, P. V., Marinelli, M., Jodogone, C., Deroche, V., Rouge-Pont, F., Maccari, S., Le Moal, M., and Simon, H. 1994. Inhibition of corticosterone synthesis by metyrapone decreases cocainc-induced locomotion and relapse of cocaine self-administration. Brain Res. 658:259–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kreek, M. J. 1987. Multiple drug abuse patterns and medical consequences. Pages 1597–1604,in Meltzer, H. Y., (ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kreek, M. J. 1992. Rationale for maintenance pharmacotherapy of opiate dependence. Pages 205–230,in O'Brien, C. P. and Jaffe, J. H. (eds.), Addictive States. Raven Press, Ltd., New York.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kreek, M. J., Bencsath, F. A., and Field, F. H. 1980. Effects of liver disease on urinary excretion of methadone and metabolites in maintenance patients: Quantitation by direct probe chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Biomedical Mass Spectrometry. 7: 385–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kreek, M. J. 1988. Cocaine effects on neuroendocrine function: relationships to opiate effects and implications for immunological function. Abstracts of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kreek, M. J., Raghunath, J., Spagnoli, D., Mueller, D., Stubbs, V., and Paris, P. 1986. Possible age-related changes in levels of beta-endorphin in humans. Alcohol Drug Res. 6:117.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kreek, M. J., Marsh, F., Albeck, H., Kutscher, J., Schmugler, J., Connor, B., and Schaefer, R. A. 1986. Effects of opioid antagonist naloxone on fecal evacuation in patients with idiopathic chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and narcotic-induced constipation. Alcohol Drug Res. 6:168.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kreek, M. J., Paris, P. Beber, C., Bartol, M. A., Newton, B., Mueller, D., Ferdinands, L., and Spagnoli, D. 1986. Improvement of fecal evacuation in geriatric patients by oral administration of the specific opioid antagonist naloxone. Abstracts of the Clinical Pharmacological and Therapeutic Meeting, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Culpepper-Morgan, J. A., Holt, P. R., and Kreek, M. J. 1988. Colonic opiate receptors change with age: Preliminary data. Page 267,in Harris, L. S. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1987; Proceedings of the 49th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub.s No. (ADM)88-1564, National Institute of Drug Research Monography Series, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hahn, E. F., Lahita, R., Kreek, M. J., Duma, C., and Inturrisi, C. E. 1983. Noloxone radioimmunoassay: An improved antiserum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 35:833–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Albeck, H., Woodfield, S., and Kreek, M. J. 1989. Quantitative and pharmacokinetic analysis of naloxone in plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and solid phase extraction. J. Chromatog. 488:435–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kreek, M. J., Schneider, B. S., Raghunath, J., and Plevy, S. 1984. Prolonged (24 hour) infusion of the opioid antagonist naloxone does not significantly alter plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH in humans. Abstracts of the Seventh International Congress of Endocrinology, Excerpta, Medica, International Congress Series 652, Amsterdam Oxford-Princeton: 845.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Volavka, J., Bauman, J., Pevnick, J., Reker, D., James, B., and Cho, D. 1980. Short-term hormonal effects of naloxone in man. Psychoneuroend. 5:225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kreek, M. J., Ochshorn, M., Ferdinands, L., O'Bryan, L., Carty, A. 1987. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) effects in humans of a new opioid antagonist nalmefene with mu and kappa receptor subtype activity. Abstracts of the 1987 INRC Conference. Adelaide, Australia.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schluger, J., Porter, M., Maniar, N., Gunduz, M., Ho, A., and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Differential effects of two opioid antagonists on hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function in normal controls,in Harris L. (ed.) Abstracts for the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, in press.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chou, J. Z., Albeck, H., and Kreek, M. J. 1993. Determination of nalmefene in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and its application in pharmacokinetic studies. J. Chromatog. 613:359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosen, M. I., McMahon, T. J., Margolin, A, Gill, T. S., Woods, S. W., Pearsall, H. R., Kreek, M. J., and Kosten, T. R. 1995. Reliability of sequential naloxone challenge tests. Amer. J. Drug. Alc. Abuse. 4:453–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rosen, M. I., McMahon, T. J., Hameedi, F. A., Pearsall, H. R., Woods, S. W., Kreek, M. J., and Kosten, T. R. 1996. Effect of clonidine pretreatment on naloxone-precipitate opiate withdrawal. J. Pharmacol. and Exp. Therapeutics. 276:1128–1135.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kosten, T. R., Kreek, M. J., Raghunath, J., and Kleber, H. D. 1986. Cortisol levels during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in ex-opiate addicts. Biological Psychiatry. 21:217–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kosten, T. R., Kreek, M. J., Raglunath, J., and Kleber, H. D. 1986. A preliminary study of beta-endorphin during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in exp-opiate addicts. Life Sciences, 39:55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kosten, T. R., Morgan, C., and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Beta-endorphin levels during heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and naloxone challenges: Preliminary findings. Biolog. Psych. 32:523–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Young, E. A., and Akil, H. 1985. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulation of adrenocorticotropin and beta-endorphin release: Effects of acute and chronic stress. Endocrinology. 117:23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Culpepper-Morgan, J. M., Twist, D. J., Petrillo, C. R., Soda, K. M. and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Beta-endorphin and cortisol abnormalities in spinal cord injured individuals. Metabolism. 41:578–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Twist, D. J., Culpepper-Morgan, J. A., Ragnarsson, K. T., Petrillo, C. R., and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Neuroendocrine changes during functional electrical stimulation. Am. J. Phys. Med. & Rehab. 71:156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zhou, Y., Spangler, R., LaForge, K. S., Maggos, C. E., Kreek, M. J. 1996. Modulation of CRF-R1 mRNA in rat anterior pituitary by dexamethaxone: correlation with POMC mRNA. Peptides. in press.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhou, Y.; Spangler, R.; LaForge, K. S.; Maggos, C. E., Ho, A. and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Corticotropin-releasing factor and CRF-R1 mRNAs in rat brain and pituitary during “binge” pattern cocaine administration and chronic withdrawal. JPET, in press.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kreek, M. J. and Culpepper-Morgan, J. 1991. Neuroendocrine (HPA) and gastrointestinal effects of opiate antagonists: Possible therapeutic application. Page 168–174,in Harris, L. S., (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1990: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series. Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 91-1753, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Unterwald, E. M., Rubenfeld, J. M., Imai, Y., Wang, J.-B., Uhl, G. R., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Chronic opioid antagonist administration upregulates mu opioid receptor binding without altering mu opioid receptor mRNA levels. Mol. Brain Res. 33:351–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kreek, M. J. 1992. Methadone disposition during the perinatal period in humans.Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 11, Suppl.:1–7.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Burstein, Y., Grady, R. W., Kreek, M. J., Rausen, A. R., and Peterson, C. M. 1980. Thrombocytosis in the offspring of female mice receiving dl-methadone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 164: 275–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Unterwald, E., Rubenfeld, J. M., Kreuter, J., Kreek, M. J. 1996. Mu opioid receptor mRNA levels following chronic administration of opioid ligands. Analgesia, in press.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kling, M., Borg, L., Zametkin, A., Schluger, J., Carson, R., Matochik, J., Maslansky, R., Khuri, E., Wells, A., Lampert, S., Lefter, L., Kreek, M. J. 1996. Opioid receptor binding in methadone maintained former heroin addicts by PET imaging using (18F)cyclofoxy.in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Maggos, C. E., Spangler, R., Perl, D. P., Morgello, S., Simonin, F., Keiffer, B. L., Yuferov, V. and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Human kappa opioid receptor mRNA levels: Quantitation using solution hybridization followed by TCA precipitation.in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Volpicelli, J. R., Alterman, A. I., Hayashida, M., and O'Brien, C. P. 1992. Naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 49:876–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Volpicelli, J. R., Watson, N. T., King, A. C., Sherman, C. E., and O'Brien, C. P. 1995. Eflect of naltrexone on alcohol “high” in alcoholics. Amer. J. of Psych. 152:613–15.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    O'Malley, S. S., Jaffe, A. J., Change, G., Schottenfeld, R. S., Meyer, R. E., and Rounsaville, B. J. 1992. Naltrexone and coping skills therapy for alcohol dependence. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 49: 881–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mason, B. J., Ritvo, E. C., Morgan, R. O., Salvato, F. R., Goldberg, G., Welch, B., and Mantero-Atienza, E. 1994. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral nalmefene HCl for alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 18:1162–1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    King, A. C., Volpicelli, J. R., Gunduz, M., O'Brien, C. P., and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Naltrexone biotransformation and subjective response to alcohol in social drinkers. Alcoholism: Clin. Expt. Res. 20:44A.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kreek, M. J. 1981. Metabolic interactions between opiates and alcohol. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 362:36–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ragavan, V. V., Wardlaw, S. L., Kreek, M. J., and Frantz, A. G. 1983. Effect of chronic naltrexone and methadone administration on brain immunoreactive beta-endorphin in the rat. Neuroendocrinology. 37:266–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kosten, T. R., Kreek, M. J., Swift, C., Carney, M. K., and Ferdinands, L. 1987. Beta-endorphin levels in CSF during methadone maintenance. Life Sciences. 41:1071–1076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kreek, M. J. 1987. Tolerance and dependence: Implications for the pharmacological treatment of addiction. Pages 53–61,in Harris, L. S., (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1986; Proceedings of the 48th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 87-1508, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kreek, M. J. 1988. Opiate-ethanol interactions: Implications for the biological basis and treatment of combined addictive diseases. Pages 428–239,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1987; Proceedings of the 49th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Insitute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)88-1564. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Branch, A. D., Unterwald, E. M., Lee, S. E., and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Quantitation of preproenkephalin mRNA levels in brain regions from male Fischer rats following chronic cocaine treatment using a recently developed solution hybridization procedure. Mol. Brain. Res. 14:231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Unterwald, E. M., Horne-King, J., and Kreek, M. J. 1992. Chronic cocaine alters brain mu opioid receptors. Brain Res. 584: 314–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Spangler, R., Unterwald, E. M., Branch, A., Ho, A., and Kreek, M. J. 1993. Chronic cocaine administration increases prodynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate putamen of rats. Page 142in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992; Proceedings of the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (AD1994. Study of dynorphin A (1–17)in vivo processing in rat by microdialysis and matrix-assisted M) 93-3505, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Maisonneuve, I. M., Albeck, H., and Kreek, M. J. 1993. Effects of a series of acute cocaine injections on the dopaminergic systems in rats: Anin vivo microdialysis study. Page 396,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992; Proceedings of the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monography Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 93-3505, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Unterwald, E. M., Cox, B. M., Kreek, M. J., Cote, T. E., and Izenwasser, S. 1993. Chronic repeated cocaine adminstration alters basal and opioid-regulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Synapse. 15:33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Spangler, R., Unterwald, E. M., and Kreek, M. J. 1993. ‘Binge’ cocaine administration induces a sustained increase of prodynorphine mRNA in rat caudate-putamen. Mol. Brain. Res. 19:323–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chou, J. Z., Maisonneuve, I. M., Chait, B. T., and Kreek, M. J. 1994. Study of dynorphin A(1–17)in vivo processing in rat brain by microdialysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. Page 240,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1993; Proceedings of the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)94-3749, Washingnton, D.C.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Maisonneuve, I. M., and Kreek, M. J. 1994. Acute tolerance to the dopamine response induced by a binge pattern of cocaine administration in male rats: Anin vivo microdialysis study. J. Pharmacol. and Exp. Therapeutics. 268(2):916–921.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Unterwald, E. M., Rubenfeld, J. M., and Kreek, M. J. 1994. Repeated cocaine administration upregulates κ and μ, but not δ, opioid receptors. NeuroReport. 5:1613–1616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Unterwald, E. M., Ho, A., Rubenfeld, J. M., and Kreek, M. J. 1994. Time course of the development of behavioral sensitization and dopamine receptor upregulation during binge cocaine administration. J. Pharmacol. and Exp. Therapeutics 270(3):1387–1397.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Maisonneuve, I. M., Ho, A., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Chronic administration of a cocaine “binge” alters basal extracellular levels in male rats: Anin vivo microdialysis study. J. Pharmacol. and Exp. Therapeutics 272:652–657.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Spangler, R., Ho, A., Zhou, Y., Maggos, C., Yuferov, V., Kreek, M. J. 1996. Regulation of kappa opioid receptor mRNA in the rat brain by “binge” pattern cocaine administration and correlation with preprodynorphin mRNA. Mol. Brain Res. 38:71–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Spangler, R., Zhou, Y., Maggos, C. E., Zlobin, A., Ho, A., and Kreek, M. J. Dopamine antagonist and q “binge” cocaine effects on rat opioid and dopamine transporter mRNAs.Neuroreport, in press.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zubieta, J-K,in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Spangler, R., Zhou, Y., Maggos, C. E., Schlussman, S., Ho, A. and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Pesistent 5preprodynorphin and kappa opioid receptor mRNA responses to cocaine occur acutely.in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hurd, Y. L., Herkenham, M. 1992. Influence of a single injection of cocaine, amphetamine or GBR 12909 on mRNA expression of striatal neuropeptides. Mol. Brain Res. 16:97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hurd, Y. L.; Brown, E. E.; Finlay, J. M.; Fibiger, H. C.; Gerfen, C. R. 1992. Cocaine self-administration differentially alters mRNA expression of striatal peptides. Mol. Brain Res. 13:165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Daunais, J. B.; Roberts, D. C. S.; McGinty, J. F. 1993. Cocaine self-administration increases preprodynorphin, but not c-fos, mRNA in rat striatum. NeuroReport. 4:543–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Daunais, J. B.; McGinty, J. F. 1995. Cocaine binges differentially alter striatal preprodynorphin mRNA. Mol. Brain Res. 29:201–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    LaForge, K. S., Unterwald, E. M., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Structure and expression of the guinea pig preproenkephalin gene: Site-specific cleavage in the 3′ untranslated region yields truncated mRNA transcripts in specific brain regions. Mol. and Cell Biology. 15:2080–2089.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yuferov, V. P., LaForge, K. S., Spangler, R., Maggos, C. E., and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Guinea pig preprodynorphin mRNA: Primary structure and regional quantitation in the brain. DNA and Cell Biology, in press.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yuferov, V., LaForge, K. S., Spangler, R., Ho, A. and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Regulation of guinea pig brain preprodynorphin mRNA expression by binge pattern cocaine administration.in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sivam, S. P. 1989. Cocaine selectively increases striatonigral dynorphin levels by a dopaminergic mechanism. JPET. 250:818–824.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chou, J. Z., Pinto, S., Kreek, M. J., and Chait, B. T. 1993. Study of opioid peptides by laser desorption mass spectrometry. Page 380,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992; Proceedings of the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No.(ADM) 93-3505, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kreek, M. J., Ho, A., and Borg, L., 1994. Dynorphin A1–13 administration causes elevation of serum levels of prolactin in human subjects. Page 108,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1993; Proceedings of the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S., Govt. Print. Off., NIH Pub. No. 94-3749, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chou, J. Z., Chait, B. T., and Kreek, M. J. 1995. Study of dynorphin A peptidesin vitro processing in human blood by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry. Page 252,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994; Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)95-3883, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Butelman, E. R., Yu, J., Chou, J. Z., Chait, B. T., Kreek, M. J. and Woods, J. H. 1996. Dynorphin A (1–13): Biotransformation in human and rhesus monkey blood and antinociception. Page 225,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1995; Proceedings of the 57th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)96-4116, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Yu, J., Butelman, E. R., Woods, J. H., Chait, B. T., and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Studies ofin vitro processing of dynorphin A (1–17) in human blood and in rhesus monkey blood. Page 131,in Harris, L. S. (ed.), Problems of Drug Dependence, 1995; Proceedings of the 57th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)96-4116, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Claye, L. H., Maisonneuve, I. M., Yu, J., Ho, A. and Kreek, M. J. 1996. Local perfusion of dynorphin A(1–17) reduces extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.in Harris, L. (ed.) Problems of Drug Dependence, 1996; Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Jeanne Kreek
    • 1
  1. 1.The Laboratory on the Biology of Addictive DiseasesThe Rockefeller UniversityNew York

Personalised recommendations