Hydrobiologia

, Volume 200, Issue 1, pp 475–486 | Cite as

Multiplicity of stable states in freshwater systems

  • Marten Scheffer
Part Seven: Models

Abstract

It is shown with the use of minimal models that several ecological relationships in freshwater systems potentially give rise to the existence of alternative equilibria over a certain range of nutrient values. The existence of alternative stable states has some implications for the management of such systems. An important consequence is that signs of eutrophication are only apparent after the occurrence of changes that are very difficult to reverse. Reduction of the nutrient level as a measure to restore such systems gives poor results, but biomanipulation as an additional measure can have significant effects, provided that the nutrient level has been reduced enough to allow the existence of a stable alternative clear water equilibrium.

Key words

model equilibria stable states catastrophe theory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, R. M., 1981. Population ecology of infectious disease agents. In R. M. May (ed.), Theoretical Ecology. Blackwell, Oxford: 318–356.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, G., H. Berggren, G. Cronberg & C. Gelin, 1978. Effects of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on organisms and water chemistry in eutrophic lakes. Hydrobiologia 59: 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benndorf, J. & H. Kneschke, 1984. Manipulation of the pelagic food-web by stocking with predacious fishes. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 69: 407–428.Google Scholar
  4. Crivelli, A. J., 1983. The destruction of aquatic vegetation by carp. Hydrobiologia 106: 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Diehl, S., 1988. Foraging efficiency of three freshwater fishes: effects of structural complexity and light. Oikos 53: 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gatto, M. & S. Rinaldi, 1987. Some methods of catastrophic behaviour in exploited forests. Vegetation 69: 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gerking, S. D. (ed), 1978. Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, Blackwell, London, 520 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Grimm, M. P., 1989. Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters. Hydrobiol. Bull. 23: 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holt, R. D., 1977. Predation, apparent competition, and the structure of prey communities. Theoret. Population Biol. 12: 197–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hosper, S. H., 1989. Biomanipulation, new perspective for restoring shallow, eutrophic lakes in The Netherlands. Hydrobiol. Bull. 23: 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lazarro, X., 1987. A review of planktivorous fishes: their evolution, feeding behaviours, selectivities and impacts. Hydrobiologia 146: 97–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ludwig, D., D. D. Jones a C. S. Holling, 1978. Qualitative analysis of insect outbreak systems: the spruce budworm and forest. J. anim. Ecol. 47: 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. May, R. M., 1977. Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature 269: 471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. May, R. M., 1981. Models for two interacting populations. In: R.M. May (ed), Theoretical ecology. Blackwell, Oxford: 78–105.Google Scholar
  15. Meijer, M.-L., M. W. de Haan, A. W. Breukelaar, H. Buiteveld, 1990. Is reduction of the benthivorous fish an important cause of high transparency following biomanipulation in shallow lakes? Hydrobiologia 201/202: 303–315.Google Scholar
  16. Moss, B., H. Balls, I. Booker, K. Manson & M. Timms, 1984. The River Bure, United Kingdom: patterns of change in chemistry and phytoplankton in a slow-fertile river. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 22: 1959–1964.Google Scholar
  17. Noy-Meir, I., 1975. Stability of grazing systems: an application of predator-prey graphs. J. Ecol. 63: 459–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oksanen, L., S. D. Fretwell, J. Arruda & P. Niemela, 1981. Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. Am. Nat. 118: 240–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rosenzweig, M. L., 1971. Paradox of enrichment: Destabilization of exploitation ecosystems in ecological time. Science 171: 385–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rosenzweig, M. L., 1973. Exploitation in three trophic levels. Am. Nat. 107: 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rosenzweig, M. L. & R. H. MacArthur, 1963. Graphical representation and stability conditions of predator-prey interactions. Am. Nat. 895: 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Scheffer, M., submitted. Fish and nutrients interplay determines algal biomass: a minimal model. Limnol. Oceanogr.Google Scholar
  23. Scheffer, M., 1989. Alternative stable states in eutrophic shallow freshwater systems: a minimal model. Hydrobiol. Bull. 23: 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spence, D. H. N., 1982. The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. In A. Macfayden & E. D. Ford (eds.), Advances in ecological research, Volume 12. Academic Press, London: 37–125.Google Scholar
  25. Ten Winkel, E. H. & J. T. Meulemans, 1984. Effects of cyprinid fish on submerges vegetation. Hydrobiol. Bull. 18: 157–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thom, R., 1975. Structural stability and morphogenesis; an outline of a general theory of models. Benjamin, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  27. Timms, R. M. & B. Moss, 1984. Prevention of growth of potentially dense phytoplankton populations by zooplankton grazing in the presence of zooplanktivorous fish in a shallow wetland ecosystem. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 472–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Van Donk, E., R. D. Gulati & M. P. Grimm, 1989. Food-web manipulation in Lake Zwemlust: positive and negative effects during the first two years. Hydrobiol. Bull. 23: 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wium-Andersen, S., 1987. Allelopathy among aquatic plants, Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 27: 167–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marten Scheffer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water TreatmentLelystadThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations