Multiplicity of stable states in freshwater systems
- 474 Downloads
It is shown with the use of minimal models that several ecological relationships in freshwater systems potentially give rise to the existence of alternative equilibria over a certain range of nutrient values. The existence of alternative stable states has some implications for the management of such systems. An important consequence is that signs of eutrophication are only apparent after the occurrence of changes that are very difficult to reverse. Reduction of the nutrient level as a measure to restore such systems gives poor results, but biomanipulation as an additional measure can have significant effects, provided that the nutrient level has been reduced enough to allow the existence of a stable alternative clear water equilibrium.
Key wordsmodel equilibria stable states catastrophe theory
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anderson, R. M., 1981. Population ecology of infectious disease agents. In R. M. May (ed.), Theoretical Ecology. Blackwell, Oxford: 318–356.Google Scholar
- Benndorf, J. & H. Kneschke, 1984. Manipulation of the pelagic food-web by stocking with predacious fishes. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 69: 407–428.Google Scholar
- Gerking, S. D. (ed), 1978. Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production, Blackwell, London, 520 pp.Google Scholar
- May, R. M., 1981. Models for two interacting populations. In: R.M. May (ed), Theoretical ecology. Blackwell, Oxford: 78–105.Google Scholar
- Meijer, M.-L., M. W. de Haan, A. W. Breukelaar, H. Buiteveld, 1990. Is reduction of the benthivorous fish an important cause of high transparency following biomanipulation in shallow lakes? Hydrobiologia 201/202: 303–315.Google Scholar
- Moss, B., H. Balls, I. Booker, K. Manson & M. Timms, 1984. The River Bure, United Kingdom: patterns of change in chemistry and phytoplankton in a slow-fertile river. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 22: 1959–1964.Google Scholar
- Scheffer, M., submitted. Fish and nutrients interplay determines algal biomass: a minimal model. Limnol. Oceanogr.Google Scholar
- Spence, D. H. N., 1982. The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. In A. Macfayden & E. D. Ford (eds.), Advances in ecological research, Volume 12. Academic Press, London: 37–125.Google Scholar
- Thom, R., 1975. Structural stability and morphogenesis; an outline of a general theory of models. Benjamin, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
- Wium-Andersen, S., 1987. Allelopathy among aquatic plants, Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 27: 167–172.Google Scholar