Advertisement

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 164, Issue 3, pp 212–216 | Cite as

Effect of growth temperature on lipid fatty acids of four fungi (Aspergillus niger, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, andTrichoderma reesei)

  • Merja Suutari
Original Paper

Abstract

The effect of growth temperature on the lipid fatty acid composition was studied over a temperature range from 35 to 10° C with 5° C intervals in four exponentially growing fungi:Aspergillus niger, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, andTrichoderma reesei. Fatty acid unsaturation increased inA. niger, P. chrysogenum, andT. reesei when the temperature was lowered to 20–15, 20, and 26–20° C, respectively. InA. niger andT. reesei, this was due to the increase in linolenic acid content. InP. chrysogenum, the linolenic acid content increased concomitantly with a more pronounced decrease in the less-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, and in palmitic and linoleic acids; consequently, the fatty acid content decreased as the temperature was lowered to 20° C. InT. reesei, when the growth temperature was reduced below 26–20° C, fatty acid unsaturation decreased since the mycelial linolenic acid content decreased. InA. niger andP. chrysogenum, the mycelial fatty acid content increased greatly at temperatures below 20–15° C. In contrast, inN. crassa, fatty acid unsaturation was nearly temperature-independent, although palmitic and linoleic acid contents clearly decreased when the temperature was lowered between 26 and 20° C; concomitantly, the growth rate decreased. Therefore, large differences in the effects of growth temperature on mycelial fatty acids were observed among various fungal species. However, the similarities found may indicate common regulatory mechanisms causing the responses.

Key words

Temperature Fatty acids Fungi Aspergillus niger Neurospora crassa Penicillium chrysogenum Trichoderma reesei 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett AS, Quackenbush FW (1969) Synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids byPenicillium chrysogenum. Archiv Biochem Biophys 130:567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennan PJ, Griffin PFS, Lösel DM, Tyrrell D (1974) The lipids of fungi. Prog Chem Fats Other Lipids 14:51–89Google Scholar
  3. Brown CM, Rose AH (1969) Fatty acid composition ofCandida utilis as affected by growth temperature and dissolved-oxygen tension. J Bacteriol 99:371–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown DE, Hasan M, Lepe-Casillar M, Thornton AJ (1990) Effect of temperature and pH on lipid accumulation byTrichoderma reesei. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 34:335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chavant L, Wolf C, Fonvieille JL, Dargent R (1981) Deviation from the usual relationships between the temperature, the growth rate, the fatty acid composition and the lipid microviscosity of four different fungi (Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus ochraceus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Achlya bisexualis). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 101:912–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chopra A, Khuller GK (1984) Lipid metabolism in fungi. Crit Rev Microbiol 11:209–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Coté GG, Brody S (1987) Circadian rhythms inNeurospora crassa: membrane composition of a mutant defective in temperature compensation. Biochim Biophys Acta 898:23–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crisan EV (1973) Current concepts of thermophilism and the thermophilic fungi. Mycologia 65:1171–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrante G, Kates M (1983) Pathways for desaturation of oleoyl chains inCandida lipolytica. Can J Biochem Cell Biol 61:1191–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kamisaka Y, Yokochi T, Nakahara T, Suzuki O (1990) Incorporation of linoleic acid and its conversion to linolenic acid in fungi. Lipids 25:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kates M, Paradis M (1973) Phospholipid desaturation inCandida lipolytica as a function of temperature and growth. Can J Biochem 51:184–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lösel DM (1988) Fungal lipids. In: Ratledge C, Wilkinson SG (eds) Microbial lipids. Academic Press, New York London, pp 699–806Google Scholar
  13. Martin CE, Johnston AM (1983) Changes in fatty acid distribution and thermotropic properties of phospholipids following phosphatidylcholine depletion in a choline-requiring mutant ofNeurospora crassa. Biochim Biophys Acta 730:10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mumma RO, Rergus CL, Sekura RD (1970) The lipids of thermophilic fungi: lipid composition comparisons between thermophilic and mesophilic fungi. Lipids 5:100–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Okayasu T, Nagao M, Ishibashi T, Imai Y (1981) Purification and partial characterization of linoleyl-CoA desaturase from rat liver microsomes. Arch Biochem Biophys 206:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Radwan SS, Soliman AH (1988) Arachidonic acid from fungi utilizing fatty acids with shorter chains as sole sources of carbon and energy. J Gen Microbiol 134:387–393Google Scholar
  17. Richards RL, Quackenbush FW (1974) Alternate pathways of linolenic acid biosynthesis in growing cultures ofPenicillium chrysogenum. Arch Biochem Biophys 165:780–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sumner JL, Morgan ED, Evans HC (1969) The effect of growth temperature on the fatty acid composition of fungi in the order Mucorales. Can J Microbiol 15:515–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Suutari M, Laakso S (1994) Microbial fatty acids and thermal adaptation. Crit Rev Microbiol 20:285–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Suutari M, Liukkonen K, Laakso S (1990) Temperature adaptation in yeasts: the role of fatty acids. J Gen Microbiol 136:1469–1474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Suutari M, Priha P, Laakso S (1993) Temperature shifts in regulation of lipids accumulated byLipomyces starkeyi. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70:891–894Google Scholar
  22. Vokt JP, Brody S (1985) The kinetics of changes in the fatty acid composition ofNeurospora crassa lipids after a temperature increase. Biochim Biophys Acta 835:176–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Wilson AC, Miller RW (1978) Growth temperature-dependent stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase activity ofFusarium oxysporum microsomes. Can J Biochem 56:1109–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Merja Suutari
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyHelsinki University of Technology, Department of Chemical EngineeringEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations