Zoomorphology

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 77–83 | Cite as

The proboscis of eye-frequenting and piercing Lepidoptera (Insecta)

  • Wilhelm Büttiker
  • Harald W. Krenn
  • John F. Putterill
Original Article

Abstract

The external structures of the proboscis are investigated in eye-frequenting species of Noctuidae, Geometridae and Pyralidae by means of scanning electron microscopy. They are compared with non-eye-frequenting representatives of these families. In Noctuidae, highly specialized fruit-piercing, skin-piercing blood-sucking, and sweat-feeding representatives have been included. All hemi- and eulachryphagous species have a soft proboscis tip which is characterized by few sensilla and strongly elongated, dentate plates of the dorsal galeal linkage. The latter structures leave broad gaps between them that lead into the food canal at the tip. This arrangement permits the uptake of fluid suspensions such as lachrymal fluid, wound exudates and pus. The modified dorsal galeal linkage is regarded as an adaptation for this highly derived feeding habit. The rough surface of the proboscis is likely to cause irritation and possible mechanical damage to the conjunctiva and cornea which results in an increased lachrymal flow and production of pus. In contrast to fruit-piercing and skin-piercing Noctuidae, there are no erectile structures on the proboscis of eye-frequenting species.—The comparison with related non-eye-frequenting species demonstrates that the particular morphology of the proboscis tip in lachryphagous moths evolved convergently in different families of Leipdoptera.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler PH (1982) Soil- and puddle-visiting habits of moths. J. Lepid Soc 36/3: 161–173Google Scholar
  2. Altner H, Altner I (1986) Sensilla with both, terminal pore and wall pores on the proboscis of the moth,Rhodogastria bubo Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Zool Anz 216/3,4: 129–150Google Scholar
  3. Bänziger H (1968) Preliminary observations on a skin-piercing blood-sucking moth (Calyptra eustrigata) (Hmps) (Lep, Noctuidae) in Malaya. Bull Entomol Res 58: 159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bänziger H (1970) The piercing mechanism of the fruit-piercing mothCalpe [Calyptra] thalictri Bkh (Noctuidae) with reference to the skin-piercing blood-sucking mothC. eustrigata Hmps. Acta Trop 27: 53–88Google Scholar
  5. Bänziger H (1973) Biologie der lacriphagen Lepidopteren in Thailand and Malaya. Rev Suisse Zool 79: 1381–1469Google Scholar
  6. Bänziger H (1980) Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths III: feeding act and piercing mechanism ofCalyptra eustrigata (Hmps) (Lep, Noctuidae), Mitt Schweiz ent Ges 53: 127–142Google Scholar
  7. Bänziger H (1982) Fruit-piercing moths (Lep, Noctuidae) in Thailand: A general survey and some new perspectives, Mitt Schweiz ent Ges 55: 213–240Google Scholar
  8. Bänziger H (1983) A taxonomic revision of the fruit-piercing and blood-sucking moth genusCalyptra Ochsenheimer [=Calyptra Treitschke] (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). Ent Scand 14: 467–491Google Scholar
  9. Bänziger H (1987) Description of new moths which settle on man and animals in SE Asia (generaThliptoceras Hemiscopis, Toxobotys, Pyralidae, Leipid.). Rev Suisse Zool 94: 671–681Google Scholar
  10. Bänziger H (1992) Remarkable new cases of moths drinking human tears in Thailand (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae), Nat Hist Bull Soc Siam 40: 91–102Google Scholar
  11. Bänziger H (1995)Microstega homoculorum sp.n.—the most frequently observed lachryphagous moth of man (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae: Pyraustinae). Rev Suiss Zool 102/2:265–276Google Scholar
  12. Bänziger H, Büttiker W (1969) Records of eye-frequenting Lepidoptera from man. J Med Entomol 6: 53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaney WM, Simmonds SJ (1988) Food selection in adults and larvae of three species of Lepidoptera: a behavioural and electrophysiological study. Entomol Exp Appl 49: 111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Börner C (1939) Die Grundlagen meines Lepidopterensystems. Verh 7. Int Kongr Entomologie 2: 1374–1424Google Scholar
  15. Büttiker W (1959) Observation of feeding habits of adult Westermanniinae (Lepid, Noctuidae) in Cambodia. Acta Trop 16: 356–361Google Scholar
  16. Büttiker W (1962) Biological and morphological notes on the fruit-piercing and eye-frequenting moths. 11. Int Kongr Entomologie Wien (1960) 2: 10–17Google Scholar
  17. Büttiker W (1967) Biological notes on eye-frequenting moths from N Thailand. Mitt Schweiz Entomol Ges 39/3,4: 151–179Google Scholar
  18. Büttiker W (1970) Strange parasites of the eye. Ciba Symposium 17: 22–29Google Scholar
  19. Büttiker W (1973) Vorläufige Beobachtungen an augenbesuchenden Schmetterlingen in der Elfenbeinküste. Rev Suisse Zool 80: 1–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Büttiker W (1993) Domestic and wild mammalian hosts of ophthalmotropic Lepidoptera in Africa. Entomologist Extraordinary. S Afr Inst Med Res, Johannesburg, pp 5–9Google Scholar
  21. Büttiker W (1996) Midgut structure and contents in some higher moths, especially in eye-frequenting taxa. Entomol Basiliensia (in press)Google Scholar
  22. Darwin F (1875) On the structure of the proboscis ofOphideres fullonica, on orange-sucking moth. Quart J Microsc Sci 15: 385–390Google Scholar
  23. Downes JA (1973) Lepidoptera feeding at puddle-margins, dung, and carrion. J Lepid Soc 27/2: 89–99Google Scholar
  24. Estham LES, Eassa JEE (1955) The feeding mechanism of the butterflyPieris brassicae. Phil Trans R Soc London B 239: 1–43Google Scholar
  25. Frings H, Frings M (1956) The loci of contact chemoreceptors involved in feeding reactions in certain Lepidoptera. Biol Bull 110: 291–299Google Scholar
  26. Gouws JJ, Coetzer JAW, Howell PG (1995) A comparative microbiological study of clinically healthy eyes and those affected by ophthalmia in cattle and the association of noctuid eye-frequenting moths. Tydskr S Afr Vet Assoc 66/3: 160–169Google Scholar
  27. Krenn HW (1990) Functional morphology and movements of the proboscis of Lepidoptera (Insecta). Zoomorphology 110: 105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nicolet J, Büttiker W (1975a) Observations sur la kérato-conjonctivite infectieuse du bovin en Côte d'Ivoire 1. Aspects microbiologiques. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 28/2: 115–124Google Scholar
  29. Nicolet J, Büttiker W (1975b) Observations sur la kératoconjonctivite infectieuse du bovin en Côte d'Ivoire 2. Étude sur le rôle vecteur des lépidoptères ophthalmotropes. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 28/2: 125–132Google Scholar
  30. Norris MJ (1936) The feeding-habits of the adult Lepidoptera Heteroneura. Trans R Entomol Soc London 85: 61–90Google Scholar
  31. Reid ETM (1954) Observations on feeding habits of adultArcyophora. Proc R Entomol Soc London B 23/11, 12: 200–204Google Scholar
  32. Salama HS, Khalifa A, Azmy N, Sharaby A (1984) Gustation in the lepidopterous mothSpodoptera littoralis (Boisd). Zool Jb Physiol 88: 165–178Google Scholar
  33. Sellier R (1975) Étude ultrastructurale en microscopie électronique par balayage des organes sensoriels de la trompe des Lépidoptères Rhopalocères. Alexanor 9: 9–15Google Scholar
  34. Srivastava RP, Bogawat JT (1969) Feeding mechanism of a fruitsucking mothOthreis materna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Nat Hist 3: 165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilhelm Büttiker
    • 1
  • Harald W. Krenn
    • 2
  • John F. Putterill
    • 3
  1. 1.Naturhistorisches MuseumBaselSchweiz
  2. 2.Institut für ZoologieUniversität WienViennaAustria
  3. 3.Pathology SectionOnderstepoort Veterinary InstituteOnderstepoortSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations