A generalized genetic framework for the development of sinkholes and Karst in Florida, U.S.A.

  • Barry F. Beck
Article

Abstract

Karst topography in Florida is developed on the Tertiary limestones of the Floridan aquifer Post-depositional diagenesis and solution have made these limestones highly permeable, T=ca. 50,000 m2/d. Zones of megaporosity have formed at unconformities, and dissolution has enlarged joints and fractures Erosion of the overlying clastic Miocene Hawthorn group strata on one flank of a structural arch has exposed the limestone The elevated edge of the Hawthorn cover forms the Cody scarp Ubiquitous solution pipes have previously formed at joint intersections and are now filled Downwashing of the fill deeper into solution cavities in the limestone and subsidence of the overlying unconsolidated sediments causes surface collapse a subsidence doline or sinkhole This process may penetrate up to 60 m of the semi-consolidated Hawthorn cover, as occurred when the Winter Park sinkhole developed Dense clusters of solution pipes may have formed cenotes which are now found on the exposed limestone terrain

Groundwater moves laterally as diffuse flow except where input or outflow is concentrated. At sinking streams, vertical shafts, and springs, karst caves have formed, but only the major sinking streams form through-flowing conduit systems Shaft recharge dissipates diffusely. Spring discharge is concentrated from diffuse flow In both cases, conduits taper and merge into a zone of megaporosity

References Cited

  1. Abbott, E. M. F., 1972, Karst topography as an influence on land use in west central Florida; unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Geography, University of Florida, 199 p.Google Scholar
  2. Back, W., and B. B. Hanshaw, 1970, Comparison of chemical hydrogeology of the carbonate peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan: J. Hydrol. v. 10, p. 330–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, B. F., 1984, A computer-based inventory of recorded recent sinkholes in Florida: Sinkhole Research Inst., University of Central Florida, report 84-85-1, 12 p.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, B. F., and D. D. Arden, 1983, Hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Dougherty Plain, Southwest Georgia—Guidebook for Field Trip, Southeastern Geological Society of America, Tallahassee, Florida: Americus, GA, Georgia Southwestern College.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, B. F., and D. D. Arden, 1984, Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology of the Doughtery Plain, Southwest Georgia: Southwestern Geological Society Guidebook no. 26, 59 p.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, B. F., R. Ceryak, D. T. Jenkins, T. M. Scott, and D. P. Spangler, 1984, Field guide to some illustrative examples of karst hydrogeology in central and northern, Florida: Sinkhole Research Inst., University of Central Florida, report 84-85-2, 43 p.Google Scholar
  7. Burnson, T., 1981, Hydrogeology of the Suwannee River Water Management District:in G. Fisher, ed., Groundwater in Florida. Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium on Florida Hydrogeology: NW Fla., Water Mgt. Dist., Public Info. Bull. 82-2, p. 51–64.Google Scholar
  8. Ceryak, R., 1977, Hydrogeology of a river basin in a karst terrain, Alapaha River, Hamilton County, Florida: Suwannee River Water Management District Information Circular Series IC-5, 20 p.Google Scholar
  9. Copeland, R. W., 1981, Mature karst features in north Central Florida,in Karst hydrogeology and Miocene geology of the Upper Suwannee River Basin, Hamilton County, Florida: Southeast Geological Society Guidebook no. 23, 36 p.Google Scholar
  10. Faulkner, G. L., 1973, Geohydrology of the cross-Florida barge canal area with special reference to the Ocala vicinity: U.S. Geological Survey WRI 1-73, 117 p.Google Scholar
  11. Fisk, D. W., and I. S. Exley, 1977, Exploration and environmental investigation of the Peacock Springs Cave system,in R. R. Dilamarter, and S. C. Csallany, eds., Hydrologic problems in karst regions: Bowling Green, KY, Western Kentucky University, p. 297–307.Google Scholar
  12. Ford, D. C., 1963, Aspects of the geomorphology of the Mendip Hills: unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University, Bodleian Library.Google Scholar
  13. Hanshaw, B. B., and W. Back, 1979, Major geochemical processes in the evolution of carbonate-aquifer systems: J. Hydrol., v. 43, p. 287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Head, C. M., and R. B. Marcus, 1984, The face of Florida: Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hall, 209 p.Google Scholar
  15. Hunn, J. D., and L. J. Slack, 1983, Water resources of the Santa Fe River basin, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations report, no. 83-4075, 105 p.Google Scholar
  16. Jammal and Associates, 1982, The Winter Park Sinkhole: Orlando, FL, Jammal and Associates, Consulting Engineers, 274 p.Google Scholar
  17. Jennings, J. N., 1971, Karst: Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 252 p.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, D. S., 1982, Some considerations of the late Eocene faunas of Northwest Peninsular Florida,in Cenozoic vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology of North America: Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook no. 24, p. 14–32.Google Scholar
  19. Krause, R. E., 1979, Geohydrology of Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols Counties, Georgia: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Open-File Report 78-117, 48 p.Google Scholar
  20. Lichtler, W. F., A. Warren, and B. F. Joyner, 1968, Water resources of Orange County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigation, no. 50, 150 p.Google Scholar
  21. Metcalfe, S. F., and L. E. Hall, 1984, Sinkhole collapse induced by groundwater pumpage for freeze protection irrigation near Dover, Florida, January, 1977,in B. F. Beck, ed., Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering, and environmental impact: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 29–34.Google Scholar
  22. Newton, J. G., 1984, Review of induced sinkhole development,in B. F. Beck, ed., Sinkholes: Their geology engineering, and environmental impact: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 3–10.Google Scholar
  23. Popenoe, P., F. A. Kohout, and F. T. Manheim, 1984, Seismic-reflection studies of sinkholes and limestone dissolution features on the Northeastern Florida Shelf,in B. F. Beck, ed., Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering, and environmental impact: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 43–58.Google Scholar
  24. Randazzo, A. F., 1982, Comments on the geology of the field-trip area,in Cenozoic vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology of North Florida: Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook no. 24, p. 5–13.Google Scholar
  25. Rhoades, R. G., and B. W. Sinacori, 1941, Patterns of groundwater flow and solution. J. Geol., v. 49, p. 785–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Robertson, A. F., 1973, Hydrologic conditions in the Lakeland Ridge area of Polk County, Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation no. 64, 54 p.Google Scholar
  27. Rosenau, G. C., G. L. Faulkner, C. W. Hendry, Jr., and R. W. Hull, 1977, Springs of Florida: Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Bull. no. 31, 461 p.Google Scholar
  28. Rutledge, A. T., 1982, Hydrology of the Floridan Aquifer in Northwest Volusia County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Open-File Report 82-108, 116 p.Google Scholar
  29. Schiner, G. R., and E. R. German, 1982, Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, Central Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report no. 82-4094, 124 p.Google Scholar
  30. Schmidt, W., and T. M. Scott, 1984, Florida karst—its relationship to geologic structure and stratigraphy,in B. F. Beck, ed., Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering, and environmental impact: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 11–16.Google Scholar
  31. Shuster, E. T., and W. B. White, 1971, Seasonal fluctuations in the chemistry of limestone springs: A possible means for characterizing carbonate aquifers: J. Hydrol., v. 14, p. 93–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sinclair, W. C., 1982, Sinkhole development resulting from ground-water withdrawal in the Tampa area, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 81-50, 19 p.Google Scholar
  33. Southworth, C. S., 1984, Structural and hydrogeologic applications of remote sensing data, eastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico,in B. F. Beck, ed., Sinkholes: Their geology, engineering, and environmental impact: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 59–64.Google Scholar
  34. Sowers, G. F., 1975, Failures in limestones in humid subtropics: J. Geotech. Eng. Div., Proc. A.S.C.E., GT8, p. 771–787.Google Scholar
  35. Stringfield, V. T., and H. E. LeGrand, 1966, Hydrology of limestone terrains in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States: Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 93, 46 p.Google Scholar
  36. Sweeting, M. M., 1973, Karst landforms: New York, Columbia University Press, 362 p.Google Scholar
  37. Thornbury, W. P., 1969, Principles of geomorphology: New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 305 p.Google Scholar
  38. Thrailkill, J., 1968, Chemical and hydrologic factors in the excavation of limestone caves: Geological Society of America Bull., v. 79, p. 19–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vernon, R. O., 1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties: Florida Geological Survey Bull. 33, 265 p.Google Scholar
  40. Williams, P. W., 1964, Aspects of the limestone physiography of parts of counties Claire and Galway, West Ireland: unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry F. Beck
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida Sinkhole Research InstituteUniversity of Central FloridaOrlando

Personalised recommendations