Characterization of enzymatically prepared biosurfactants
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Various fatty monoesters of sugars and sugar alcohols were prepared enzymatically in organic solvent. Water produced during esterification was removed by refluxing through a dessicant under reduced pressure. Surface properties of these esters such as surface and interfacial tensions and their ability to stabilize emulsions at 30°C were evaluated: oleate esters of glucose, fructose, and sorbitol show similar behavior in reduction of surface and interfacial tensions, and values for the critical micelle concentration are about 8·10−5 M. It was also observed with sorbitol esters that the shorter the alkyl chain, the higher the critical micelle concentration. Generally, emulsions prepared with the emulsifier dissolved in the water or in the oil phase lead to oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions, respectively. Sorbitol monolaurate significantly increased the stability of oil-in-water emulsions, with only 5% separation of the phases after 48h at 30°C, compared to 10% for chemically prepared sorbitan monolaurate under the same conditions. Sorbitol monoerucate was very efficient in stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions, with only 1% separation of the phases.
Key wordsCritical micelle concentration emulsifier emulsion stability enzymatic esterification lipase nonionic surfactant sugar alcohol esters sugar esters surface activity
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